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      Theory of the nanoparticle-induced frequency shifts of whispering-gallery-mode resonances in spheroidal optical resonators

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          Abstract

          Nanoparticle-induced modifications of the spectrum of whispering-gallery-modes (WGM) of optical spheroidal resonators are studied theoretically. Combining an ab initio solution of a single resonator problem with a dipole approximation for the particle, we derive simple analytical expressions for frequencies and widths of the particle-modified resonances, which are valid for resonators with moderate deviations from the spherical shape. The derived expressions are used to analyze spectral properties of the resonator-particle system as functions of the particle's position, the size of the resonators and the characteristics of WGMs. The obtained results are shown to agree well with available experimental data. It is also demonstrated that the particle-induced spectral effects can be significantly enhanced by careful selection of resonator's size, refractive index and other experimental parameters. The results presented in the paper can be useful for applications of WGM resonators in biosensing, cavity QED, optomechanics and others.

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          Whispering gallery mode bio-sensor for label-free detection of single molecules: thermo-optic vs. reactive mechanism.

          Thermo-optic and reactive mechanisms for label-free sensing of bio-particles are compared theoretically for Whispering Gallery Mode (WGM) resonators (sphere, toroid) formed from silica and stimulated into a first order equatorial mode. Although it has been expected that a thermo-optic mechanism should "greatly enhance" wavelength shift signals [A.M. Armani et al, Science 317, 783-787 (2007)] accompanying protein binding on a silica WGM cavity having high Q (10(8)), for a combination of wavelength (680 nm), drive power (1 mW), and cavity size (43 microm radius), our calculations find no such enhancement. The possible reasons for this disparity are discussed.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            2015-04-13
            2015-04-15
            Article
            10.1103/PhysRevA.92.013842
            1504.03399

            http://arxiv.org/licenses/nonexclusive-distrib/1.0/

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            Phys. Rev. A, 92, 013842 (2015)
            physics.optics

            Optical materials & Optics

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