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      Checklist of the fresh and brackish water snails (Mollusca, Gastropoda) of Bénin and adjacent West African ecoregions

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          Currently no comprehensive checklist of fresh and brackish water gastropods from Bénin exists, and those for adjacent West African areas are outdated. Yet, such checklists provide essential biodiversity information and a consistent taxonomic and nomenclatural framework for that biodiversity. Here a first checklist of the fresh and brackish water gastropods from Bénin and adjacent West African ecoregions is presented, based on an extensive literature review and field surveys between September 2014 and June 2019 in six major fresh and brackish water ecosystems in Bénin. This inventory includes information on synonymy, species distribution in West Africa, habitats, and conservation status. The fresh and brackish water gastropod fauna includes 60 species, belonging to 28 genera and 16 families. Pachychilidae , Ampullariidae , Neritidae , and Bulinidae were the most diverse families with 9, 8, 7, and 7 species, respectively. However, literature and field data indicated that 23 species observed in West African basins that extend to Bénin do not occur in the territory of Bénin. These species were not detected in our field surveys, most likely because they are rare at collecting sites. Of the 60 species included, five are classified as “Data Deficient”, 43 as “Least Concern”, two as “Nearly Threatened”, one as “Vulnerable”, and six as “Endangered” by the IUCN, whereas the remaining three species were not evaluated. Because the taxonomy of fresh and brackish water gastropods in West Africa is still largely based on morphology, comparative molecular and taxonomic studies may result in substantial revisions of this checklist over the coming years.

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          The Global Decline of Nonmarine Mollusks

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            Not knowing, not recording, not listing: numerous unnoticed mollusk extinctions.

            Mollusks are the group most affected by extinction according to the 2007 International Union for Conservation of Nature (IUCN) Red List, despite the group having not been evaluated since 2000 and the quality of information for invertebrates being far lower than for vertebrates. Altogether 302 species and 11 subspecies are listed as extinct on the IUCN Red List. We reevaluated mollusk species listed as extinct through bibliographic research and consultation with experts. We found that the number of known mollusk extinctions is almost double that of the IUCN Red List. Marine habitats seem to have experienced few extinctions, which suggests that marine species may be less extinction prone than terrestrial and freshwater species. Some geographic and ecologic biases appeared. For instance, the majority of extinctions in freshwater occurred in the United States. More than 70% of known mollusk extinctions took place on oceanic islands, and a one-third of these extinctions may have been caused precipitously by introduction of the predatory snail Euglandina rosea. We suggest that assessment of the conservation status of invertebrate species is neglected in the IUCN Red List and not managed in the same way as for vertebrate species.
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              Revised Classification, Nomenclator and Typification of Gastropod and Monoplacophoran Families


                Author and article information

                Pensoft Publishers
                18 June 2020
                : 942
                : 21-64
                [1 ] Laboratory of Hydrobiology and Aquaculture, Faculty of Agronomic Sciences, University of Abomey-Calavi 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin
                [2 ] Biodiversité et Ressources en Eau-Benin (BioREB-ONG), 01 BP 1442, Cotonou, Bénin
                [3 ] Laboratory of Ecology and Aquatic Ecosystem Management, Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science and Technics, University of Abomey-Calavi 01 BP 526 Cotonou, Bénin
                [4 ] Cercle d’Action pour la Protection de l’Environnement et de la Biodiversité (CAPE BIO-ONG), Cotonou, Abomey-Calavi, Bénin
                [5 ] Laboratory of Research on Wetlands, Department of Zoology, University of Abomey-Calavi, Abomey-Calavi, Bénin
                [6 ] CNRS, Univ. Lille, UMR 8198 - Evo-Eco-Paleo, F-59000, Lille, France
                [7 ] Royal Belgian Institute of Natural Sciences (RBINS), Vautierstraat 29, B-1000, Brussels, Belgium
                [8 ] Evolutionary Ecology Group, University of Antwerp, Universiteitsplein 1, B-2610, Antwerp, Belgium
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Zinsou Cosme Koudenoukpo ( kkoudenoukpo@ 123456yahoo.fr )

                Academic editor: A. M. de Frias Martins

                Zinsou Cosme Koudenoukpo, Olaniran Hamed Odountan, Bert Van Bocxlaer, Rose Sablon, Antoine Chikou, Thierry Backeljau

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Biodiversity & Conservation

                Animal science & Zoology

                west africa, biodiversity, species inventory, inland water, gastropods


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