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      Violence Prevention Programs Are Effective When Initiated During the Initial Workup of Patients in an Urban Level I Trauma Center

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          Abstract

          This study represents the first attempt at evaluating the ability of the CureViolence Hospital-Response Intervention Program (previously CeaseFire) to disrupt the pattern of violent reinjury. The clinical data points of 300 African American men who presented to our trauma center with a gunshot wound and received intervention at the bedside between 2005 and 2007 (with a 48-month follow-up) were collected. This cohort was matched with a post hoc historical control group using hospital records from 2003 to 2005. The mean age for both groups was 23.9 years. Odds ratios and 95% confidence intervals were obtained. Using a binary logistical regression model, we assessed the performance of three variables of interest: age at the time of the initial injury, treatment group, and initial disposition group to predict recidivism. We utilized the Nagelkerke R square method, which described the proportion of the variance of the reinjury rate and validated our findings using the Hosmer–Lemeshow test (for goodness-of-fit). Six percent ( n = 18) of subjects in the treatment group and 11% ( n = 33) in the control group returned with a new injury, yielding a total reinjury rate of 8.5%. Most patients returned only once with another violent injury. Individuals who did not receive CureViolence services were nearly twice as likely (odds ratio = 1.94; 95% confidence interval = 1.065, 3.522) to return with a violent reinjury. This finding suggests that Hospital-Response Intervention Programs (HRIP) have a protective effect in violently injured patients. We therefore conclude our HRIP positively affected at-risk patients and prevented violent reinjury.

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          The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) statement: guidelines for reporting observational studies.

          Much of biomedical research is observational. The reporting of such research is often inadequate, which hampers the assessment of its strengths and weaknesses and of a study's generalizability. The Strengthening the Reporting of Observational Studies in Epidemiology (STROBE) Initiative developed recommendations on what should be included in an accurate and complete report of an observational study. We defined the scope of the recommendations to cover three main study designs: cohort, case-control, and cross-sectional studies. We convened a 2-day workshop in September 2004, with methodologists, researchers, and journal editors to draft a checklist of items. This list was subsequently revised during several meetings of the coordinating group and in e-mail discussions with the larger group of STROBE contributors, taking into account empirical evidence and methodological considerations. The workshop and the subsequent iterative process of consultation and revision resulted in a checklist of 22 items (the STROBE Statement) that relate to the title, abstract, introduction, methods, results, and discussion sections of articles. Eighteen items are common to all three study designs and four are specific for cohort, case-control, or cross-sectional studies. A detailed Explanation and Elaboration document is published separately and is freely available on the web sites of PLoS Medicine, Annals of Internal Medicine, and Epidemiology. We hope that the STROBE Statement will contribute to improving the quality of reporting of observational studies.
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            Pathways to recurrent trauma among young Black men: traumatic stress, substance use, and the "code of the street".

            Recurrent interpersonal violence is a major cause of death and disability among young Black men. Quantitative studies have uncovered factors associated with reinjury, but little is known about how these factors work together. We interviewed young Black male victims to understand their experience of violence. Qualitative analysis of their narratives revealed how their struggle to reestablish safety shaped their response to injury. Aspects of the "code of the street" (including the need for respect) and lack of faith in the police combined with traumatic stress and substance use to accentuate their sense of vulnerability. Victims then reacted to protect themselves in ways that could increase their risk of reinjury. We describe a model with implications for reducing rates of recurrent violent injuries.
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              Cure Violence: A Public Health Model to Reduce Gun Violence

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Am J Mens Health
                Am J Mens Health
                JMH
                spjmh
                American Journal of Men's Health
                SAGE Publications (Sage CA: Los Angeles, CA )
                1557-9883
                1557-9891
                16 September 2022
                Sep-Oct 2022
                : 16
                : 5
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Surgery, Division of Trauma Critical Care, Advocate Christ Medical Center, Oak Lawn, IL, USA
                [2 ]CeaseFire Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
                [3 ]Department of Surgery, University of Illinois at Chicago, Chicago, IL, USA
                [4 ]Clinical Professor of Surgery, Elson S Floyd College of Medicine at Washington State University, USA
                [5 ]Medical Director for Trauma & Emergency Surgical Services, Kadlec Medical Center, Richland, WA, USA
                Author notes
                [*]Eduardo Smith-Singares, Clinical Professor of Surgery, Elson S Floyd College of Medicine at Washington State University, 412 E Spokane Falls Blvd., Spokane, WA 99202, USA. Email: eduarsmith@ 123456gmail.com
                Article
                10.1177_15579883221125007
                10.1177/15579883221125007
                9490468
                36114706
                a6261d4f-5c62-402c-b49f-4de99b518703
                © The Author(s) 2022

                This article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 License ( https://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits non-commercial use, reproduction and distribution of the work without further permission provided the original work is attributed as specified on the SAGE and Open Access pages ( https://us.sagepub.com/en-us/nam/open-access-at-sage).

                Categories
                Original Article
                Custom metadata
                September-October 2022
                ts1

                penetrating injury,behavior changes,counseling,safe community,violence,attitudes

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