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      The Effect of the Presence of Lower Urinary System Symptoms on the Prognosis of COVID-19: Preliminary Results of a Prospective Study

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          Purpose: To investigate the effectiveness of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH)-related lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS), which occur as a natural result of aging and androgen exposure, in predicting disease prognosis in male patients diagnosed with COVID-19. Methods: The study was planned prospectively. The study included 63 male patients over 40 years of age diagnosed with COVID-19. The patients were diagnosed with COVID-19 based on the results of reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction tests of oropharyngeal and nasopharyngeal swabs obtained as per the World Health Organization guidelines. The presence of LUTS was assessed by the International Prostate Symptom Score (I-PSS), a subjective assessment, and the I-PSS was filled for the patients included in the study. The patients were divided into three groups based on their scores in the I-PSS survey: group 1: mild (0–7), group 2: moderate (8–19), and group 3: severe (20–35). The data of all three groups were statistically analyzed. Results: In the assessment performed between the groups, it was identified that for patients in group 3, the length of hospital stay was longer, intensive care requirement was more frequent, and their mortality rates were numerically higher. In the evaluation made regarding the time to intensive care admittance, this was identified to be the shortest in group 3. Conclusion: As a result of our study, we think that in patients with COVID-19, BPH-related LUTS can guide clinicians in predicting prognosis.

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          Most cited references 5

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          The role of chronic prostatic inflammation in the pathogenesis and progression of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH).

          Several different stimuli may induce chronic prostatic inflammation, which in turn would lead to tissue damage and continuous wound healing, thus contributing to prostatic enlargement. Patients with chronic inflammation and benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH) have been shown to have larger prostate volumes, more severe lower urinary tract symptoms (LUTS) and a higher probability of acute urinary retention than their counterparts without inflammation. Chronic inflammation could be a predictor of poor response to BPH medical treatment. Thus, the ability to identify patients with chronic inflammation would be crucial to prevent BPH progression and develop target therapies. Although the histological examination of prostatic tissue remains the only available method to diagnose chronic inflammation, different parameters, such as prostatic calcifications, prostate volume, LUTS severity, storage and prostatitis-like symptoms, poor response to medical therapies and urinary biomarkers, have been shown to be correlated with chronic inflammation. The identification of patients with BPH and chronic inflammation might be crucial in order to develop target therapies to prevent BPH progression. In this context, clinical, imaging and laboratory parameters might be used alone or in combination to identify patients that harbour chronic prostatic inflammation. © 2013 BJU International.
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            Influence of age and endocrine factors on the volume of benign prostatic hyperplasia.

            To determine whether endocrine factors influence the volume of benign prostatic hyperplasia (BPH), 23 hormonal factors were measured in the serum of 64 men ages 42 to 71 years with low volume prostatic cancer and these levels were correlated with the volume of benign hyperplastic tissue in their radical prostatectomy specimens. With age there was a significant increase in the volume of BPH. Also with age there was a significant decrease in the serum levels of free testosterone, androstenedione, dehydroepiandronsterone (DHA), dehydroepiandronsterone sulphate (DHA-S), delta 5-androstenediol, and 17-hydroxypregnenolone, and a significant increase in sex hormone-binding globulin (SHBG), LH, and FSH. When BPH volume and hormone levels were corrected for age, BPH volume correlated positively with free testosterone, estradiol, and estriol. These data indicate that with age patients with larger volumes of BPH have higher serum androgen and estrogen levels suggesting that serum androgen and estrogen levels may be factors in the persistent stimulation of BPH with age. If so, therapeutic attempts at lowering plasma testosterone levels, reducing estrogen levels, or blocking androgenic stimulation through other mechanisms may interfere with the progression of BPH with age. Conversely, the fact that androgen production declines gradually with age may explain the observation that only 20 to 30% of men who live to age 80 require surgical treatment for urinary obstruction from BPH.
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              Is Open Access

              Stromal androgen receptor roles in the development of normal prostate, benign prostate hyperplasia, and prostate cancer.

              The prostate is an androgen-sensitive organ that needs proper androgen/androgen receptor (AR) signals for normal development. The progression of prostate diseases, including benign prostate hyperplasia (BPH) and prostate cancer (PCa), also needs proper androgen/AR signals. Tissue recombination studies report that stromal, but not epithelial, AR plays more critical roles via the mesenchymal-epithelial interactions to influence the early process of prostate development. However, in BPH and PCa, much more attention has been focused on epithelial AR roles. However, accumulating evidence indicates that stromal AR is also irreplaceable and plays critical roles in prostate disease progression. Herein, we summarize the roles of stromal AR in the development of normal prostate, BPH, and PCa, with evidence from the recent results of in vitro cell line studies, tissue recombination experiments, and AR knockout animal models. Current evidence suggests that stromal AR may play positive roles to promote BPH and PCa progression, and targeting stromal AR selectively with AR degradation enhancer, ASC-J9, may allow development of better therapies with fewer adverse effects to battle BPH and PCa.

                Author and article information

                Urol Int
                Urologia Internationalis
                S. Karger AG
                07 September 2020
                : 1-6
                aDepartment of Urology, Health Sciences University Regional Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey
                bDepartment of Infectious Diseases and Clinical Microbiology, Ataturk University Medical Faculty, Erzurum, Turkey
                cDepartment of Internal Medicine, Health Sciences University Regional Training and Research Hospital, Erzurum, Turkey
                dDepartment of Anesthesiology and Reanimation, Ataturk University Medical Faculty, Erzurum, Turkey
                eDepartment of Urology, Ataturk University Medical Faculty, Erzurum, Turkey
                Author notes
                *Dr. Ahmet Emre Cinislioglu, Department of Urology, Health Sciences University Regional Training and Research Hospital, TR–25040 Palandöken, Erzurum (Turkey),
                510761 Urol Int
                © 2020 S. Karger AG, Basel

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                Figures: 2, Tables: 3, Pages: 6
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