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Proposal ofBurkholderiagen. nov. and Transfer of Seven Species of the GenusPseudomonasHomology Group II to the New Genus, with the Type SpeciesBurkholderia cepacia(Palleroni and Holmes 1981) comb. nov.

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      A simple method for estimating evolutionary rates of base substitutions through comparative studies of nucleotide sequences.

       Motoo Kimura (1980)
      Some simple formulae were obtained which enable us to estimate evolutionary distances in terms of the number of nucleotide substitutions (and, also, the evolutionary rates when the divergence times are known). In comparing a pair of nucleotide sequences, we distinguish two types of differences; if homologous sites are occupied by different nucleotide bases but both are purines or both pyrimidines, the difference is called type I (or "transition" type), while, if one of the two is a purine and the other is a pyrimidine, the difference is called type II (or "transversion" type). Letting P and Q be respectively the fractions of nucleotide sites showing type I and type II differences between two sequences compared, then the evolutionary distance per site is K = -(1/2) ln [(1-2P-Q) square root of 1-2Q]. The evolutionary rate per year is then given by k = K/(2T), where T is the time since the divergence of the two sequences. If only the third codon positions are compared, the synonymous component of the evolutionary base substitutions per site is estimated by K'S = -(1/2) ln (1-2P-Q). Also, formulae for standard errors were obtained. Some examples were worked out using reported globin sequences to show that synonymous substitutions occur at much higher rates than amino acid-altering substitutions in evolution.
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        Confidence Limits on Phylogenies: An Approach Using the Bootstrap

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          Primer-directed enzymatic amplification of DNA with a thermostable DNA polymerase.

          A thermostable DNA polymerase was used in an in vitro DNA amplification procedure, the polymerase chain reaction. The enzyme, isolated from Thermus aquaticus, greatly simplifies the procedure and, by enabling the amplification reaction to be performed at higher temperatures, significantly improves the specificity, yield, sensitivity, and length of products that can be amplified. Single-copy genomic sequences were amplified by a factor of more than 10 million with very high specificity, and DNA segments up to 2000 base pairs were readily amplified. In addition, the method was used to amplify and detect a target DNA molecule present only once in a sample of 10(5) cells.
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            Author and article information

            Journal
            Microbiology and Immunology
            Microbiology and Immunology
            Wiley-Blackwell
            03855600
            December 1992
            December 1992
            : 36
            : 12
            : 1251-1275
            10.1111/j.1348-0421.1992.tb02129.x
            © 1992

            http://doi.wiley.com/10.1002/tdm_license_1.1

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