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      Hand grip strength and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease in Korea: an analysis in KNHANES VI

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          Muscle mass is known to be associated with mortality in elderly adults. Because hand grip strength (HGS) is known as a simple assessment tool for muscular strength, many researchers have studied the association between HGS and disease. However, empirical evidence for the relationship between chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and HGS is still controversial. The aim of this study was to evaluate the association between COPD and HGS, using Korean population data.


          This was a population-based cross-sectional study. Data were obtained from the sixth Korean National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey, which was conducted from 2013 to 2015. To reduce the effects of HGS-related factors and potential confounding factors, propensity score matching was used to match subjects with and without COPD.


          Among 14,930 subjects, 832 were enrolled in each group (non-COPD and COPD) after propensity score matching. COPD subjects did not have lower HGS than non-COPD subjects (non-COPD vs COPD, male, 38.0±7.0 vs 38.9±7.0 kg, P=0.044, female, 23.8±4.6 vs 24.2±4.9 kg, P=0.342). Lung function was classified by Global Initiative for Chronic Obstructive Lung Disease stages and was not significantly associated with HGS. For male COPD subjects, there was a significant correlation between HGS and the EuroQol Five-Dimension Questionnaire (EQ5D) utility score index, which is an indicator of quality of life that adjusts for age and body mass index ( r=0.201, P<0.001). The correlation was absent for female subjects ( r=0.098, P=0.170).


          COPD subjects did not have lower HGS than non-COPD subjects. HGS did not associate with lung function. However, the HGS of male COPD subjects was positively associated with EQ5D utility score index, an indicator of quality of life. HGS may be helpful as an additional method to the evaluation of quality of life in male COPD patients.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Hand-grip dynamometry predicts future outcomes in aging adults.

          One use of clinical measures is the prediction of future outcomes. The purpose of this systematic review was to summarize the literature addressing the value of grip strength as a predictor of important outcomes. Relevant literature was located using 4 bibliographic databases, searching article reference lists, and perusing personal files. Forty-five relevant research articles were found. The research involved both healthy subjects and patients; it tended to focus on middle-aged and older adults. The primary outcome addressed was mortality/survival (24 articles), but disability (9 articles), complications and/or increased length of stay (12 articles), and other outcomes were also examined. Low grip strength was shown consistently to be associated with a greater likelihood of premature mortality, the development of disability, and an increased risk of complications or prolonged length of stay after hospitalization or surgery. Given its predictive validity and simplicity, dynamometrically measured grip strength should be considered as a vital sign useful for screening middle-aged and older adults.
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            South Korean time trade-off values for EQ-5D health states: modeling with observed values for 101 health states.

            This study establishes the South Korean population-based preference weights for EQ-5D based on values elicited from a representative national sample using the time trade-off (TTO) method. The data for this paper came from a South Korean EQ-5D valuation study where 1307 representative respondents were invited to participate and a total of 101 health states defined by the EQ-5D descriptive system were directly valued. Both aggregate and individual level modeling were conducted to generate values for all 243 health states defined by EQ-5D. Various regression techniques and model specifications were also examined in order to produce the best fit model. Final model selection was based on minimizing the difference between the observed and estimated value for each health state. The N3 model yielded the best fit for the observed TTO value at the aggregate level. It had a mean absolute error of 0.029 and only 15 predictions out of 101 had errors exceeding 0.05 in absolute magnitude. The study successfully establishes South Korean population-based preference weights for the EQ-5D. The value set derived here is based on a representative population sample, limiting the interpolation space and possessing better model performance. Thus, this EQ-5D value set should be given preference for use with the South Korean population.
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              Muscle mass index as a predictor of longevity in older adults.

              Obesity (as defined by body mass index) has not been associated consistently with higher mortality in older adults. However, total body mass includes fat and muscle, which have different metabolic effects. This study was designed to test the hypothesis that greater muscle mass in older adults is associated with lower all-cause mortality.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                04 August 2017
                : 12
                : 2313-2321
                Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, Seoul, Korea
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Jung Hyun Chang, Division of Pulmonary and Critical Care Medicine, Department of Internal Medicine, Ewha Medical Research Institute, Ewha Womans University School of Medicine, 1071 Anyangcheon-ro, Yangcheon-gu, Seoul 07985, Korea, Tel +82 2 2650 5686, Fax +82 2 2650 2559, Email hs1017@
                © 2017 Lee et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                chronic obstructive pulmonary disease, hand strength, quality of life


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