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      Paleoceanographic study of the Arctic Ocean: : its state and issues 現状と課題 Translated title: 北極海の古海洋研究:

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      The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan
      The Geological Society of Japan

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          Trends, rhythms, and aberrations in global climate 65 Ma to present.

          Since 65 million years ago (Ma), Earth's climate has undergone a significant and complex evolution, the finer details of which are now coming to light through investigations of deep-sea sediment cores. This evolution includes gradual trends of warming and cooling driven by tectonic processes on time scales of 10(5) to 10(7) years, rhythmic or periodic cycles driven by orbital processes with 10(4)- to 10(6)-year cyclicity, and rare rapid aberrant shifts and extreme climate transients with durations of 10(3) to 10(5) years. Here, recent progress in defining the evolution of global climate over the Cenozoic Era is reviewed. We focus primarily on the periodic and anomalous components of variability over the early portion of this era, as constrained by the latest generation of deep-sea isotope records. We also consider how this improved perspective has led to the recognition of previously unforeseen mechanisms for altering climate.
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            The central role of diminishing sea ice in recent Arctic temperature amplification.

            The rise in Arctic near-surface air temperatures has been almost twice as large as the global average in recent decades-a feature known as 'Arctic amplification'. Increased concentrations of atmospheric greenhouse gases have driven Arctic and global average warming; however, the underlying causes of Arctic amplification remain uncertain. The roles of reductions in snow and sea ice cover and changes in atmospheric and oceanic circulation, cloud cover and water vapour are still matters of debate. A better understanding of the processes responsible for the recent amplified warming is essential for assessing the likelihood, and impacts, of future rapid Arctic warming and sea ice loss. Here we show that the Arctic warming is strongest at the surface during most of the year and is primarily consistent with reductions in sea ice cover. Changes in cloud cover, in contrast, have not contributed strongly to recent warming. Increases in atmospheric water vapour content, partly in response to reduced sea ice cover, may have enhanced warming in the lower part of the atmosphere during summer and early autumn. We conclude that diminishing sea ice has had a leading role in recent Arctic temperature amplification. The findings reinforce suggestions that strong positive ice-temperature feedbacks have emerged in the Arctic, increasing the chances of further rapid warming and sea ice loss, and will probably affect polar ecosystems, ice-sheet mass balance and human activities in the Arctic.
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              Cenozoic evolution of Antarctic glaciation, the circum-Antarctic Ocean, and their impact on global paleoceanography

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                CHTZA5
                The Journal of the Geological Society of Japan
                Jour. Geol. Soc. Japan
                The Geological Society of Japan
                0016-7630
                1349-9963
                2018
                January 15 2018
                : 124
                : 1
                : 3-16
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Faculty of Environmental Earth Science, Global Institution for Collaborative Research and Education, Hokkaido University
                Article
                10.5575/geosoc.2017.0075
                a651c447-de39-4a3d-8ed2-fa1311bd6cfe
                © 2018
                History

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