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      Ectomycorrhizal fungal communities in young forest stands regenerating after clearcut logging

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      New Phytologist

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          The molecular revolution in ectomycorrhizal ecology: peeking into the black-box.

           T Horton,  T D Bruns (2001)
          Molecular tools have now been applied for the past 5 years to dissect ectomycorrhizal (EM) community structure, and they have propelled a resurgence in interest in the field. Results from these studies have revealed that: (i) EM communities are impressively diverse and are patchily distributed at a fine scale below ground; (ii) there is a poor correspondence between fungi that appear dominant as sporocarps vs. those that appear dominant on roots; (iii) members of Russulaceae, Thelephoraceae, and/or non-thelephoroid resupinates are among the most abundant EM taxa in ecosystems sampled to date; (iv) dissimilar plants are associated with many of the same EM species when their roots intermingle--this occurs on a small enough spatial scale that fungal individuals are likely to be shared by dissimilar plants; and (v) mycoheterotrophic plants have highly specific fungal associations. Although, these results have been impressive, they have been tempered by sampling difficulties and limited by the taxonomic resolution of restriction fragment length polymorphism methods. Minor modifications of the sampling schemes, and more use of direct sequencing, has the potential to solve these problems. Use of additional methods, such as in situ hybridization to ribosomal RNA or hybridization coupled to microarrays, are necessary to open up the analysis of the mycelial component of community structure.
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            Community structure of ectomycorrhizal fungi in a Pinus muricata forest: minimal overlap between the mature forest and resistant propagule communities.

             D L Taylor,  T D Bruns (1999)
            We have investigated colonization strategies by comparing the abundance and frequency of ectomycorrhizal fungal species on roots in a mature Pinus muricata forest with those present as resistant propagules colonizing potted seedlings grown in the same soil samples. Thirty-seven fungal species were distinguished by internal transcribed spacer (ITS) restriction fragment length polymorphisms (RFLPs); most were identified to species level by sporocarp RFLP matches or to genus/family level by using sequence databases for the mitochondrial and nuclear large-subunit rRNA genes. The below-ground fungal community found in the mature forest contrasted markedly with the resistant propagule community, as only four species were found in both communities. The dominant species in the mature forest were members of the Russulaceae, Thelephorales and Amanitaceae. In contrast, the resistant propagule community was dominated by Rhizopogon species and by species of the Ascomycota. Only one species, Tomentella sublilacina (Thelephorales), was common in both communities. The spatial distribution of mycorrhizae on mature roots and propagules in the soil differed among the dominant species. For example, T. sublilacina mycorrhizae exhibited a unique bias toward the organic horizons, Russula brevipes mycorrhizae were denser and more clumped than those of other species and Cenococcum propagules were localized, whereas R. subcaerulescens propagules were evenly distributed. We suggest that species differences in resource preferences and colonization strategies, such as those documented here, contribute to the maintenance of species richness in the ectomycorrhizal community.
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              Mycorrhizal colonization ofPinus muricatafrom resistant propagules after a stand-replacing wildfire

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                New Phytologist
                New Phytol
                Wiley-Blackwell
                0028-646X
                1469-8137
                March 2003
                March 2003
                : 157
                : 3
                : 399-422
                Article
                10.1046/j.1469-8137.2003.00698.x
                © 2003

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