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      Etiology and Management of Acute Metabolic Acidosis: An Update

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          Abstract

          Background: The etiology of acute metabolic acidosis (aMA) is heterogeneous, and the consequences are potentially life-threatening. The aim of this article was to summarize the causes and management of aMA from a clinician’s perspective. Summary: We performed a systematic search on PubMed, applying the following search terms: “acute metabolic acidosis,” “lactic acidosis,” “metformin” AND “acidosis,” “unbalanced solutions” AND “acidosis,” “bicarbonate” AND “acidosis” AND “outcome,” “acute metabolic acidosis” AND “management,” and “acute metabolic acidosis” AND “renal replacement therapy (RRT)/dialysis.” The literature search did not consider diabetic ketoacidosis at all. Lactic acidosis evolves from various conditions, either with or without systemic hypoxia. The incidence of metformin-associated aMA is actually quite low. Unbalanced electrolyte preparations can induce hyperchloremic aMA. The latter potentially worsens kidney-related outcome parameters. Nevertheless, prospective and controlled data are missing at the moment. Recently, bicarbonate has been shown to improve clinically relevant endpoints in the critically ill, even if higher pH values (>7.3) are targeted. New therapeutics for aMA control are under development, since bicarbonate treatment can induce serious side effects. Key Messages: aMA is a frequent and potentially life-threatening complication of various conditions. Lactic acidosis might occur even in the absence of systemic hypoxia. The incidence of metformin-associated aMA is comparably low. Unbalanced electrolyte solutions induce hyperchloremic aMA, which most likely worsens the renal prognosis of critically ill patients. Bicarbonate, although potentially deleterious due to increased carbon dioxide production with subsequent intracellular acidosis, improves kidney-related endpoints in the critically ill.

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            Association between a chloride-liberal vs chloride-restrictive intravenous fluid administration strategy and kidney injury in critically ill adults.

            Administration of traditional chloride-liberal intravenous fluids may precipitate acute kidney injury (AKI). To assess the association of a chloride-restrictive (vs chloride-liberal) intravenous fluid strategy with AKI in critically ill patients. Prospective, open-label, sequential period pilot study of 760 patients admitted consecutively to the intensive care unit (ICU) during the control period (February 18 to August 17, 2008) compared with 773 patients admitted consecutively during the intervention period (February 18 to August 17, 2009) at a university-affiliated hospital in Melbourne, Australia. During the control period, patients received standard intravenous fluids. After a 6-month phase-out period (August 18, 2008, to February 17, 2009), any use of chloride-rich intravenous fluids (0.9% saline, 4% succinylated gelatin solution, or 4% albumin solution) was restricted to attending specialist approval only during the intervention period; patients instead received a lactated solution (Hartmann solution), a balanced solution (Plasma-Lyte 148), and chloride-poor 20% albumin. The primary outcomes included increase from baseline to peak creatinine level in the ICU and incidence of AKI according to the risk, injury, failure, loss, end-stage (RIFLE) classification. Secondary post hoc analysis outcomes included the need for renal replacement therapy (RRT), length of stay in ICU and hospital, and survival. RESULTS Chloride administration decreased by 144 504 mmol (from 694 to 496 mmol/patient) from the control period to the intervention period. Comparing the control period with the intervention period, the mean serum creatinine level increase while in the ICU was 22.6 μmol/L (95% CI, 17.5-27.7 μmol/L) vs 14.8 μmol/L (95% CI, 9.8-19.9 μmol/L) (P = .03), the incidence of injury and failure class of RIFLE-defined AKI was 14% (95% CI, 11%-16%; n = 105) vs 8.4% (95% CI, 6.4%-10%; n = 65) (P <.001), and the use of RRT was 10% (95% CI, 8.1%-12%; n = 78) vs 6.3% (95% CI, 4.6%-8.1%; n = 49) (P = .005). After adjustment for covariates, this association remained for incidence of injury and failure class of RIFLE-defined AKI (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.37-0.75]; P <.001) and use of RRT (odds ratio, 0.52 [95% CI, 0.33-0.81]; P = .004). There were no differences in hospital mortality, hospital or ICU length of stay, or need for RRT after hospital discharge. CONCLUSION The implementation of a chloride-restrictive strategy in a tertiary ICU was associated with a significant decrease in the incidence of AKI and use of RRT. Clinicaltrials.gov Identifier: NCT00885404.
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              Major complications, mortality, and resource utilization after open abdominal surgery: 0.9% saline compared to Plasma-Lyte.

              To assess the association of 0.9% saline use versus a calcium-free physiologically balanced crystalloid solution with major morbidity and clinical resource use after abdominal surgery. 0.9% saline, which results in a hyperchloremic acidosis after infusion, is frequently used to replace volume losses after major surgery. An observational study using the Premier Perspective Comparative Database was performed to evaluate adult patients undergoing major open abdominal surgery who received either 0.9% saline (30,994 patients) or a balanced crystalloid solution (926 patients) on the day of surgery. The primary outcome was major morbidity and secondary outcomes included minor complications and acidosis-related interventions. Outcomes were evaluated using multivariable logistic regression and propensity scoring models. For the entire cohort, the in-hospital mortality was 5.6% in the saline group and 2.9% in the balanced group (P < 0.001). One or more major complications occurred in 33.7% of the saline group and 23% of the balanced group (P < 0.001). In the 3:1 propensity-matched sample, treatment with balanced fluid was associated with fewer complications (odds ratio 0.79; 95% confidence interval 0.66-0.97). Postoperative infection (P = 0.006), renal failure requiring dialysis (P < 0.001), blood transfusion (P < 0.001), electrolyte disturbance (P = 0.046), acidosis investigation (P < 0.001), and intervention (P = 0.02) were all more frequent in patients receiving 0.9% saline. Among hospitals in the Premier Perspective Database, the use of a calcium-free balanced crystalloid for replacement of fluid losses on the day of major surgery was associated with less postoperative morbidity than 0.9% saline.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2020
                July 2020
                14 July 2020
                : 45
                : 4
                : 523-531
                Affiliations
                Zentrum Innere Medizin 1, Kardiologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie, Klinikum Brandenburg, Medizinische Hochschule Brandenburg, Brandenburg an der Havel, Germany
                Author notes
                *Daniel Patschan, Zentrum Innere Medizin 1, Kardiologie, Angiologie, Nephrologie, Klinikum Brandenburg, Medizinische Hochschule Brandenburg, Hochstrasse 29, DE–14770 Brandenburg an der Havel (Germany), daniel.patschan@mhb-fontane.de
                Article
                507813 Kidney Blood Press Res 2020;45:523–531
                10.1159/000507813
                32663831
                © 2020 The Author(s) Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Tables: 1, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Review Article

                Cardiovascular Medicine, Nephrology

                Balanced fluid resuscitation, Bicarbonate, Metformin, Acidosis, Lactate

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