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      Antiphospholipid antibody syndrome with thrombotic splenic infarcts associated with acute cytomegalovirus infection

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          Abstract

          Introduction. We describe a case of acute cytomegalovirus (CMV) infection complicated by acquired antiphospholipid antibodies and splenic thrombi. We discuss the associations between CMV infection and thrombosis risk and correlation with antiphospolipid antibodies.

          Case presentation. A previously healthy 32-year-old woman is hospitalized for acute abdominal pain and fever and found to have multiple splenic infarcts on an abdominal computed tomography (CT) scan. An infectious work-up is negative except for acute CMV, and a hypercoagulable work-up is only positive for antiphospholipid antibodies. The patient is discharged and placed on anti-coagulation therapy for 6 months.

          Conclusion. Co-incident thrombosis and antiphospholipid antibody syndrome can occur with acute viral infections, including CMV. We discuss the viral infection-associated increased risk of developing blood clots and antiphospholipid antibodies as being either correlative with or causative of viral-induced thrombosis.

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          Most cited references 30

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          Review of cytomegalovirus seroprevalence and demographic characteristics associated with infection.

          Cytomegalovirus establishes a lifelong latent infection following primary infection that can periodically reactivate with shedding of infectious virus. Primary infection, reactivation and reinfection during pregnancy can all lead to in utero transmission to the developing fetus. Congenital CMV infections are a major cause of permanent hearing loss and neurological impairment. In this literature review, we found that CMV infection was relatively common among women of reproductive age, with seroprevalence ranging from 45 to 100%. CMV seroprevalence tended to be highest in South America, Africa and Asia and lowest in Western Europe and United States. Within the United States, CMV seroprevalence showed substantial geographic variation as well, differing by as much as 30 percentage points between states, though differences might be explained by variation in the types of populations sampled. Worldwide, seroprevalence among non-whites tended to be 20-30 percentage points higher than that of whites (summary prevalence ratio (PR) = 1.59, 95% confidence interval (CI) = 1.57-1.61). Females generally had higher seroprevalences than males, although in most studies the differences were small (summary PR = 1.13, 95% CI = 1.11-1.14). Persons of lower socioeconomic status were more likely to be CMV seropositive (summary PR = 1.33, 95% CI = 1.32-1.35). Despite high seroprevalences in some populations, a substantial percentage of women of reproductive age are CMV seronegative and thus at risk of primary CMV infection during pregnancy. Future vaccine or educational campaigns to prevent primary infection in pregnant women may need to be tailored to suit the needs of different populations.
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            Antiphospholipid syndrome: clinical and immunologic manifestations and patterns of disease expression in a cohort of 1,000 patients.

            To analyze the clinical and immunologic manifestations of antiphospholipid syndrome (APS) in a large cohort of patients and to define patterns of disease expression. The clinical and serologic features of APS (Sapporo preliminary criteria) in 1,000 patients from 13 European countries were analyzed using a computerized database. The cohort consisted of 820 female patients (82.0%) and 180 male patients (18.0%) with a mean +/- SD age of 42 +/- 14 years at study entry. "Primary" APS was present in 53.1% of the patients; APS was associated with systemic lupus erythematosus (SLE) in 36.2%, with lupus-like syndrome in 5.0%, and with other diseases in 5.9%. A variety of thrombotic manifestations affecting the majority of organs were recorded. A catastrophic APS occurred in 0.8% of the patients. Patients with APS associated with SLE had more episodes of arthritis and livedo reticularis, and more frequently exhibited thrombocytopenia and leukopenia. Female patients had a higher frequency of arthritis, livedo reticularis, and migraine. Male patients had a higher frequency of myocardial infarction, epilepsy, and arterial thrombosis in the lower legs and feet. In 28 patients (2.8%), disease onset occurred before age 15; these patients had more episodes of chorea and jugular vein thrombosis than the remaining patients. In 127 patients (12.7%), disease onset occurred after age 50; most of these patients were men. These patients had a higher frequency of stroke and angina pectoris, but a lower frequency of livedo reticularis, than the remaining patients. APS may affect any organ of the body and display a broad spectrum of manifestations. An association with SLE, the patient's sex, and the patient's age at disease onset can modify the disease expression and define specific subsets of APS.
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              Does cytomegalovirus play a causative role in the development of various inflammatory diseases and cancer?

              Human cytomegalovirus (HCMV) is a herpes virus that infects and is carried by 70-100% of the world's population. During its evolution, this virus has developed mechanisms that allow it to survive in an immunocompetent host. For many years, HCMV was not considered to be a major human pathogen, as it appeared to cause only rare cases of HCMV inclusion disease in neonates. However, HCMV is poorly adapted for survival in the immunosuppressed host and has emerged as an important human pathogen in AIDS patients and in patients undergoing immunosuppressive therapy following organ or bone marrow transplantation. HCMV-mediated disease in such patients has highlighted the possible role of this virus in the development of other diseases, in particular inflammatory diseases such as vascular diseases, autoimmune diseases and, more recently, with certain forms of cancers. Current research is focused on determining whether HCMV plays a causative role in these diseases or is merely an epiphenomenon of inflammation. Inflammation plays a central role in the pathogenesis of HCMV. This virus has developed a number of mechanisms that enable it to hide from the cells of the immune system and, at the same time, reactivation of a latent infection requires immune activation. Numerous products of the HCMV genome are devoted to control central functions of the innate and adaptive immune responses. By influencing the regulation of various cellular processes including the cell cycle, apoptosis and migration as well as tumour invasiveness and angiogenesis, HCMV may participate in disease development. Thus, the various drugs now available for treatment of HCMV disease (e.g. ganciclovir, acyclovir and foscarnet), may also prove to be useful in the treatment of other, more widespread diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                acmi
                acmi
                acmi
                Access Microbiology
                Microbiology Society
                2516-8290
                September 2019
                10 June 2019
                : 1
                : 7
                Affiliations
                1 Trinity School of Medicine , Kingstown, St.Vincent and the Grenadines, West Indies
                2 Baltimore VA/VAMHCS and University of Maryland School of Medicine , Baltimore, MD, USA
                Author notes
                *Correspondence: Amit Golding, agolding@ 123456som.umaryland.edu
                000032
                10.1099/acmi.0.000032
                © 2019 The Authors

                This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License, which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

                Categories
                Case Report
                Blood/heart and lymphatics
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