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      Production of Inflammatory Molecules in Peripheral Blood Mononuclear Cells from Severely Glucose-6-Phosphate Dehydrogenase-Deficient Subjects

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          Abstract

          Objective: We have previously demonstrated that Mediterranean glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PD)-deficient peripheral blood mononuclear cells (PBMC) respond to mitogenic stimuli with a reduced cholesterol synthesis and growth. In the present study, we have investigated the release of inflammatory molecules by PBMC following a mitogenic stimulus, as well as the transformation to foam cells of monocyte-derived macrophages from severely G6PD-deficient and normal subjects. Methods and Results: PBMC from G6PD-deficient subjects produced interleukin (IL)-1β and IL-6 to a lower extent compared with normal subjects. 5-Hydroxyeicosatetraenoic acid, a primary product of 5-lipoxygenase, was slightly decreased. Tumour necrosis factor-α and IL-1β secretion was significantly reduced in monocyte-derived macrophages. No difference was found in IL-10 secretion, whereas transforming growth factor-β was invariably found to be significantly higher in G6PD-deficient cells. In cells incubated with acetylated low-density lipoprotein, cholesterol esterification and its storage in lipid droplets were lower than in normal G6PD cells. Conclusions: We conclude that by reducing the secretion of inflammatory molecules by PBMC and increasing the secretion of transforming growth factor-β and the capability of monocyte-derived macrophages to accumulate lipid droplets and convert into foam cells, G6PD deficiency may confer a partial protection against atherosclerosis leading to the reduced risk of cardiovascular diseases reported in G6PD-deficient subjects.

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          Most cited references 20

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          Expanding expression of the 5-lipoxygenase pathway within the arterial wall during human atherogenesis.

          Oxidation products of low-density lipoproteins have been suggested to promote inflammation during atherogenesis, and reticulocyte-type 15-lipoxygenase has been implicated to mediate this oxidation. In addition, the 5-lipoxygenase cascade leads to formation of leukotrienes, which exhibit strong proinflammatory activities in cardiovascular tissues. Here, we studied both lipoxygenase pathways in human atherosclerosis. The 5-lipoxygenase pathway was abundantly expressed in arterial walls of patients afflicted with various lesion stages of atherosclerosis of the aorta and of coronary and carotid arteries. 5-lipoxygenase localized to macrophages, dendritic cells, foam cells, mast cells, and neutrophilic granulocytes, and the number of 5-lipoxygenase expressing cells markedly increased in advanced lesions. By contrast, reticulocyte-type 15-lipoxygenase was expressed at levels that were several orders of magnitude lower than 5-lipoxygenase in both normal and diseased arteries, and its expression could not be related to lesion pathology. Our data support a model of atherogenesis in which 5-lipoxygenase cascade-dependent inflammatory circuits consisting of several leukocyte lineages and arterial wall cells evolve within the blood vessel wall during critical stages of lesion development. They raise the possibility that antileukotriene drugs may be an effective treatment regimen in late-stage disease.
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            p47phox is required for atherosclerotic lesion progression in ApoE–/– mice

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              Dehydroepiandrosterone, glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase, and longevity.

              Dehydroepiandrosterone (DHEA) is an abundantly produced adrenal steroid whose biological role has never been clarified. DHEA is a potent uncompetitive inhibitor of mammalian glucose-6-phosphate dehydrogenase (G6PDH) and as a consequence lowers NADPH levels and reduces NADPH-dependent oxygen-free radical production. Overproduction of oxygen-free radicals, or oxidative stress, upregulates inflammation and cellular proliferation and is believed to play a critical role in the development of cancer, atherosclerosis, and Alzheimer's disease, as well as the basic aging process. Both in vitro and in vivo experimental studies strongly indicate that DHEA and related steroids inhibit inflammation and associated epithelial hyperplasia, carcinogenesis, and atherosclerosis, at least in part, through the inhibition of G6PDH and oxygen-free radical formation. Recent epidemiological findings in Sardinian males bearing the Mediterranean variant of G6PDH deficiency are consistent with the hypothesis that reduced G6PDH activity has a beneficial effect on age-related disease development and longevity. Clinical trials with DHEA are encumbered by the high oral doses required as well as the conversion of DHEA into active androgens. The use of less androgenic congeners as well as non-oral formulations may facilitate testing of this class of compounds. Copyright 2003 Elsevier Ireland Ltd.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2007
                June 2007
                15 March 2007
                : 44
                : 4
                : 253-263
                Affiliations
                aDipartimento di Scienze e Tecnologie Biomediche, Sez di Patologia Sperimentale, University of Cagliari, bCentro Trasfusionale, Azienda Ospedaliera Brotzu, Cagliari, cDipartimento di Biologia Sperimentale, dDipartimento di Neuroscienze, University of Cagliari, Cittadella Universitaria, and eDipartimento di Oncologia Medica, Policlinico Universitario, University of Cagliari, Monserrato, Italy
                Article
                100903 J Vasc Res 2007;44:253–263
                10.1159/000100903
                17361089
                © 2007 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 1, References: 46, Pages: 11
                Categories
                Research Paper

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