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      Distribution of ABO and Rhesus Blood Group Phenotypes Among Blood Donors at Bahir Dar Blood Bank, Amhara, Northwest Ethiopia: A Retrospective Cross-Sectional Study


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          Among the blood group antigens identified, ABO and Rhesus are the most important in transfusion medicine. ABO blood group antigens are the most immunogenic followed by Rhesus (D antigen). These blood groups’ frequency distribution varies among different regions and races of the world. This study aimed to identifying the frequency distribution of ABO blood group and rhesus factors among blood donors in Ethiopia.

          Methods and Materials

          Aretrospective cross-sectional study was conducted from September 12/2019 to March 18/2021 at Bahir Dar blood bank service. After getting a permission letter from the blood bank, data were collected from the blood bank donor data registration system, and descriptive statistical results were presented in number (frequency) and percentage. A Chi-square test was used to show the difference in the frequency distribution of ABO and Rh blood groups among sex and blood donation site.


          From 40,053 blood donors, 67.7% were males and younger donors (within the age range of 18–24 years) account for 63.7%. All donations were from voluntary non-remunerated blood donors. The most common blood group was blood group O (41.5%) followed by A (29.8), B (23.2%), and AB (5.5%). Considering ABO and Rh blood group altogether blood group O positive with 37.9% was the predominant blood group followed by A positive (27.2%), B positive (21.4%), AB positive (5%), O negative (3.6%), A negative (2.6%), B negative (1.8%), and AB negative (0.4%). The majority of study participants were 91.5% Rh (D) positive.


          This study showed that blood group O was the predominant followed by A, B, and AB and most of the blood donors’ blood groups were Rh-positive (91.5%). About 68.9% of the total donations were from the first time donor.

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          Most cited references 23

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          ABO and Rh(D) phenotype frequencies of different racial/ethnic groups in the United States.

           George Garratty,  S Glynn,   (2004)
          Commonly quoted ABO/Rh(D) frequencies in the US are usually from relatively small studies with racial or ethnic categories often judged by name or appearance. A 10-year demographic database that contained racial or ethnic and ABO/Rh(D) phenotype data on 3.1 million allogeneic and autologous donors giving blood at five blood centers in the US was used to compute ABO and Rh(D) phenotypes in various racial/ethnic groups. The racial or ethnic category was designated by the donor. The highest percentage of Group O was found in Hispanic (56.5%), North American Indian (54.6%), and black non-Hispanic (50.2%) donors. Hispanic and black non-Hispanic donors had a much lower percentage (7.3 and 7.1%, respectively) of Rh- compared to white non-Hispanic donors (17.3%). Group O Rh- and Group B Rh- were found more commonly (8.0 and 1.8%, respectively) in white non-Hispanic donors than in Hispanic (3.9 and 0.7%), black non-Hispanic (3.6 and 1.3%), and Asian (0.7 and 0.4%) donors. These data confirmed that the highest percentages of ORh+, BRh+/ABRh+, and Rh- are present in Hispanic, Asian, and white non-Hispanic donors, respectively. These are the largest and most accurate data of ABO/Rh(D) phenotype frequencies for the major racial/ethnic donor groups in the US.
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            Frequencies and ethnic distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups in China: a population-based cross-sectional study

            Objectives ABO and RhD blood groups are key factors affecting blood transfusion safety. The distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups varies globally, but limited data exist for ethnic distributions of these blood groups in Asian populations. We aimed to evaluate the distribution of ABO and RhD blood groups among Chinese ethnic groups. Design A population-based cross-sectional study. Setting Data on ABO groups and ethnicities were obtained from the National Free Preconception Health Examination Project (NFPHEP) with participants from 220 counties of 31 provinces in China Participants There were 3 832 034 participants aged 21–49 years who took part in the NFPHEP from January 2010 to December 2012 and were included in this study. Outcome Measures The proportion of ABO and RhD blood groups among different ethnic groups was calculated. Results ABO and RhD blood distribution was significantly different among nine ethnic groups (P<0.001). Compared with other ethnic groups, the Yi group had more A phenotypes (34.0%), and the Manchu (33.7%) and Mongolian (33.3%) ethnic groups had more B phenotypes. The Zhuang group had the greatest proportion of O phenotypes (41.8%), followed by the Miao group (37.7%). AB phenotypes were more frequent in the Uygur ethnic group (10.6%) but lower in the Zhuang group (5.5%). Meanwhile, RhD negativity (RhD–) was greater in the Uygur group (3.3%) than in the Mongolian (0.3%) and Manchu ethnic groups (0.4%). O RhD– blood groups were more frequent in the Uygur group (0.8%) than in the other ethnic groups (0.1%–0.4%, P<0.001). Conclusion ABO and RhD blood phenotypes vary across different ethnic groups in China. The diversity in the distribution of the ABO and RhD blood groups in different ethnic groups should be considered when developing rational and evidence-based strategies for blood collection and management.
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              The Rh blood group system in review: a new face for the next decade.

               C Westhoff (2004)

                Author and article information

                J Blood Med
                J Blood Med
                Journal of Blood Medicine
                16 September 2021
                : 12
                : 849-854
                [1 ]Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Debre Tabor University , Debre Tabor, Ethiopia
                [2 ]Bahir Dar Blood Bank Service, Amhara Regional State Health Bureau , Bahir Dar, Ethiopia
                [3 ]Department of Medical Laboratory Sciences, Debre Markos University , Debre Markos, Ethiopia
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Biruk Legese; Mikru Shiferaw Tel +251943592686; +251913257134 Email birukab1979@gmail.com; mikshif123@gmail.com

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                © 2021 Legese et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 0, Tables: 5, References: 23, Pages: 6
                Funded by: no funding;
                The authors declared that there is no funding was obtained for this work.
                Original Research


                abo blood group, rhesus factor, frequency distribution


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