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      Lectin Pathway Enzyme MASP-2 and Downstream Complement Activation in COVID-19


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          Mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2 (MASP-2) is the main activator of the lectin complement pathway and has been suggested to be involved in the pathophysiology of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19). To study a possible association between MASP-2 and COVID-19, we aimed at developing a sensitive and reliable MASP-2 ELISA. From an array of novel mouse-monoclonal antibodies using recombinant MASP-2 as antigen, two clones were selected to create a sandwich ELISA. Plasma samples were obtained from 216 healthy controls, 347 convalescent COVID-19 patients, and 147 prospectively followed COVID-19 patients. The assay was specific towards MASP-2 and did not recognize the truncated MASP2 splice variant MAP-2 (MAp19). The limit of quantification was shown to be 0.1 ng/mL. MASP-2 concentration was found to be stable after multiple freeze-thaw cycles. In healthy controls, the mean MASP-2 concentration was 524 ng/mL (95% CI: 496.5–551.6). No significant difference was found in the MASP-2 concentrations between COVID-19 convalescent samples and controls. However, a significant increase was observed in prospectively followed COVID-19 patients (mean: 834 ng/mL [95% CI: 765.3–902.7, p < 0.0001]). In these patients, MASP-2 concentration correlated significantly with the concentrations of the terminal complement complex (ρ = 0.3596, p < 0.0001), with the lectin pathway pattern recognition molecules ficolin-2 (ρ = 0.2906, p = 0.0004) and ficolin-3 (ρ = 0.3952, p < 0.0001) and with C-reactive protein (ρ = 0.3292, p = 0.0002). Overall, we developed a specific quantitative MASP-2 sandwich ELISA. MASP-2 correlated with complement activation and inflammatory markers in COVID-19 patients, underscoring a possible role of MASP-2 in COVID-19 pathophysiology.

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          Clinical course and risk factors for mortality of adult inpatients with COVID-19 in Wuhan, China: a retrospective cohort study

          Summary Background Since December, 2019, Wuhan, China, has experienced an outbreak of coronavirus disease 2019 (COVID-19), caused by the severe acute respiratory syndrome coronavirus 2 (SARS-CoV-2). Epidemiological and clinical characteristics of patients with COVID-19 have been reported but risk factors for mortality and a detailed clinical course of illness, including viral shedding, have not been well described. Methods In this retrospective, multicentre cohort study, we included all adult inpatients (≥18 years old) with laboratory-confirmed COVID-19 from Jinyintan Hospital and Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital (Wuhan, China) who had been discharged or had died by Jan 31, 2020. Demographic, clinical, treatment, and laboratory data, including serial samples for viral RNA detection, were extracted from electronic medical records and compared between survivors and non-survivors. We used univariable and multivariable logistic regression methods to explore the risk factors associated with in-hospital death. Findings 191 patients (135 from Jinyintan Hospital and 56 from Wuhan Pulmonary Hospital) were included in this study, of whom 137 were discharged and 54 died in hospital. 91 (48%) patients had a comorbidity, with hypertension being the most common (58 [30%] patients), followed by diabetes (36 [19%] patients) and coronary heart disease (15 [8%] patients). Multivariable regression showed increasing odds of in-hospital death associated with older age (odds ratio 1·10, 95% CI 1·03–1·17, per year increase; p=0·0043), higher Sequential Organ Failure Assessment (SOFA) score (5·65, 2·61–12·23; p<0·0001), and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL (18·42, 2·64–128·55; p=0·0033) on admission. Median duration of viral shedding was 20·0 days (IQR 17·0–24·0) in survivors, but SARS-CoV-2 was detectable until death in non-survivors. The longest observed duration of viral shedding in survivors was 37 days. Interpretation The potential risk factors of older age, high SOFA score, and d-dimer greater than 1 μg/mL could help clinicians to identify patients with poor prognosis at an early stage. Prolonged viral shedding provides the rationale for a strategy of isolation of infected patients and optimal antiviral interventions in the future. Funding Chinese Academy of Medical Sciences Innovation Fund for Medical Sciences; National Science Grant for Distinguished Young Scholars; National Key Research and Development Program of China; The Beijing Science and Technology Project; and Major Projects of National Science and Technology on New Drug Creation and Development.
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            Pathological inflammation in patients with COVID-19: a key role for monocytes and macrophages

            The COVID-19 pandemic caused by infection with SARS-CoV-2 has led to more than 200,000 deaths worldwide. Several studies have now established that the hyperinflammatory response induced by SARS-CoV-2 is a major cause of disease severity and death in infected patients. Macrophages are a population of innate immune cells that sense and respond to microbial threats by producing inflammatory molecules that eliminate pathogens and promote tissue repair. However, a dysregulated macrophage response can be damaging to the host, as is seen in the macrophage activation syndrome induced by severe infections, including in infections with the related virus SARS-CoV. Here we describe the potentially pathological roles of macrophages during SARS-CoV-2 infection and discuss ongoing and prospective therapeutic strategies to modulate macrophage activation in patients with COVID-19.
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              Methods for the determination of limit of detection and limit of quantitation of the analytical methods


                Author and article information

                J Innate Immun
                J Innate Immun
                Journal of Innate Immunity
                S. Karger AG (Allschwilerstrasse 10, P.O. Box · Postfach · Case postale, CH–4009, Basel, Switzerland · Schweiz · Suisse, Phone: +41 61 306 11 11, Fax: +41 61 306 12 34, karger@karger.com )
                Jan-Dec 2023
                11 July 2022
                11 July 2022
                : 15
                : 1
                : 122-135
                [1] aLaboratory of Molecular Medicine, Department of Clinical Immunology, Section 7631, Copenhagen University Hospital − Rigshospitalet, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [2] bDepartment of Immunology and Microbiology, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                [3] cDepartment of Infectious Diseases, Copenhagen University Hospital − Amager and Hvidovre, Hvidovre, Denmark
                [4] dDepartment of Clinical Medicine, Faculty of Health and Medical Sciences, University of Copenhagen, Copenhagen, Denmark
                Author notes

                Anne Rosbjerg and Peter Garred share last authorship.

                Copyright © 2022 by The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License (CC BY). Usage, derivative works and distribution are permitted provided that proper credit is given to the author and the original publisher.

                : 4 March 2022
                : 5 June 2022
                : 2023
                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 3, References: 58, Pages: 14
                This study was supported by funds provided to Peter Garred by the EU HORIZON 2020 MSCA ITN project CORVOS 860044.
                Research Article

                mannose-binding lectin-associated serine protease 2,masp-2,assay,covid-19,inflammation,outcome


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