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      Vessel- and Vasoconstrictor-Dependent Role of Rho/Rho-Kinase in Renal Microvascular Tone

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          Abstract

          We examined the role of Rho/Rho-kinase in renal afferent and efferent arteriolar tone induced by angiotensin (Ang) II, KCl and elevated renal arterial pressure (from 80 to 180 mm Hg), using isolated perfused rat hydronephrotic kidney. In the condition with no vasoconstrictor stimuli, Y-27632, a Rho-kinase inhibitor, dilated only afferent (from 11.6 ± 0.4 to 14.1 ± 0.5 µm) but not efferent arterioles (from 11.6 ± 0.2 to 12.6 ± 0.7 µm) at 10<sup>–5</sup> mol/l. During renal vasoconstriction by Ang II, Y-27632 restored the afferent arteriolar constriction (141 ± 10% reversal at 10<sup>–5</sup> mol/l), whereas the ability of Y-27632 to inhibit the Ang II-induced efferent arteriolar constriction was diminished (73 ± 7% reversal). A similar action was observed with fasudil, another Rho-kinase inhibitor. Furthermore, Y-27632 impaired myogenic afferent arteriolar constriction, with 117 ± 17% inhibition at 10<sup>–5</sup> mol/l. The inhibition by Y-27632 of the myogenic vasoconstriction was almost the same as that of the Ang II-induced tone of this vessel type. However, Y-27632 had a modest effect on KCl-induced vasoconstriction of afferent arterioles. In conclusion, the present study demonstrates a predominant role of Rho/Rho-kinase in mediating the basal and Ang II-induced tone of afferent, but not efferent, arterioles. Furthermore, the role of Rho/Rho-kinase in afferent arteriolar constriction differs, with a substantial contribution to Ang II-induced and myogenic constriction but a minimal role in depolarization-induced constriction. Since Ang II-induced, KCl-induced and myogenic constriction of afferent arterioles require calcium entry through voltage-dependent calcium channels, the interaction between Rho/Rho-kinase and the calcium entry pathway may determine the afferent arteriolar tone induced by these stimuli.

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          Most cited references 6

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          Inhibition of myosin light chain kinase by p21-activated kinase.

          p21-activated kinases (PAKs) are implicated in the cytoskeletal changes induced by the Rho family of guanosine triphosphatases. Cytoskeletal dynamics are primarily modulated by interactions of actin and myosin II that are regulated by myosin light chain kinase (MLCK)-mediated phosphorylation of the regulatory myosin light chain (MLC). p21-activated kinase 1 (PAK1) phosphorylates MLCK, resulting in decreased MLCK activity. MLCK activity and MLC phosphorylation were decreased, and cell spreading was inhibited in baby hamster kidney-21 and HeLa cells expressing constitutively active PAK1. These data indicate that MLCK is a target for PAKs and that PAKs may regulate cytoskeletal dynamics by decreasing MLCK activity and MLC phosphorylation.
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            Small GTP-binding proteins and the regulation of the actin cytoskeleton.

             Alan Hall (1993)
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              Inhibition of PMA-induced, LFA-1-dependent lymphocyte aggregation by ADP ribosylation of the small molecular weight GTP binding protein, rho

              Botulinum C3 exoenzyme specifically ADP-ribosylates a group of ras- related small molecular weight GTP-binding proteins, rho, and inhibits their biological activity. Using this enzyme, we examined the function of rho in PMA-induced activation of lymphocyte function-associated antigen-1 (LFA-1) in a B lymphoblastoid cell line, JY. Northern blot analysis revealed that among the three rho genes, rhoA mRNA was predominantly expressed in JY cells. Consistently, only one [32P]ADP- ribosylated band was found when the lysate of the cells was subjected to ADP ribosylation by C3 exoenzyme. When the cells were cultured with C3 exoenzyme, this substrate was ADP-ribosylated in situ in a time- and concentration-dependent manner. Concomitant with this ADP ribosylation, PMA-induced LFA-1/intercellular adhesion molecule (ICAM)-1-dependent aggregation of JY cells was inhibited. This inhibition was blocked by prior treatment of the enzyme with an anti-C3 monoclonal antibody, and overcome by stimulation with higher concentrations of PMA. The C3 exoenzyme-induced inhibition was not affected by shaking of the cell suspension, while inhibition of aggregation by cytochalasin B was abolished by this procedure, suggesting that the inhibitory effect of the C3 exoenzyme treatment was not due to decrease in cell motility. The C3 exoenzyme treatment affected neither protein phosphorylation in JY cells before and after PMA stimulation, nor affected surface expression of LFA-1 and ICAM-1. These results suggest that rhoA protein works downstream of protein kinase C activation linking PMA stimulation to LFA-1 activation and aggregation in JY cells.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                JVR
                J Vasc Res
                10.1159/issn.1018-1172
                Journal of Vascular Research
                S. Karger AG
                1018-1172
                1423-0135
                2003
                June 2003
                08 August 2003
                : 40
                : 3
                : 244-251
                Affiliations
                Department of Internal Medicine, School of Medicine, Keio University, Tokyo, Japan
                Article
                71888 J Vasc Res 2003;40:244–251
                10.1159/000071888
                12902637
                © 2003 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 5, References: 30, Pages: 8
                Categories
                Research Paper

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