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      Macrophage polarization: tumor-associated macrophages as a paradigm for polarized M2 mononuclear phagocytes

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      Trends in Immunology

      Elsevier BV

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          Abstract

          Mononuclear phagocytes are versatile cells that can express different functional programs in response to microenvironmental signals. Fully polarized M1 and M2 (or alternatively activated) macrophages are the extremes of a continuum of functional states. Macrophages that infiltrate tumor tissues are driven by tumor-derived and T cell-derived cytokines to acquire a polarized M2 phenotype. These functionally polarized cells, and similarly oriented or immature dendritic cells present in tumors, have a key role in subversion of adaptive immunity and in inflammatory circuits that promote tumor growth and progression.

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          Author and article information

          Journal
          Trends in Immunology
          Trends in Immunology
          Elsevier BV
          14714906
          November 01 2002
          November 01 2002
          : 23
          : 11
          : 549-555
          10.1016/S1471-4906(02)02302-5
          12401408
          © 2002

          https://www.elsevier.com/tdm/userlicense/1.0/

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