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      Effectiveness of treatment with nebulized colistin in patients with COPD

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          To analyze whether the introduction of nebulized colistin in patients with chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) and infection with Pseudomonas aeruginosa (PA) is associated with a decrease of the number and duration of severe exacerbations.

          Materials and methods

          Thirty six patients with COPD and infection with PA treated with nebulized colistin attending a day hospital during a 5-year (January 2010–December 2014) period were prospectively included. Repeated-measures t-tests were used to assess whether the introduction of colistin was associated with changes in the number of exacerbations or the length of the hospitalizations, comparing for each patient the year prior to the introduction of colistin with the year after.


          After the introduction of colistin, the number of admissions decreased from 2.0 to 0.9 per individual year ( P=0.0007), and hospitalizations were shorter (23.3 vs 10.9 days, P=0.00005). These results persisted when patients with and without bronchiectasis or with and without persistence of Pseudomonas were separately analyzed. No pre–post differences were detected in the number of exacerbations not requiring admission.


          Nebulized colistin seems associated with a strong decrease in the number and duration of hospitalizations due to exacerbation in patients with COPD and infection with PA. Clinical trials with a larger number of patients are needed in order to confirm these results.

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          Most cited references 21

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          Microbiologic determinants of exacerbation in chronic obstructive pulmonary disease.

          The culture of bronchial secretions from the lower airway has been reported to be positive for potentially pathogenic microorganisms (PPMs) in patients with stable chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD), but the determinants and effects of this bacterial load in the airway are not established. To determine the bronchial microbial pattern in COPD and its relationship with exacerbation, we pooled analysis of crude data from studies that used protected specimen brush sampling, with age, sex, smoking, lung function, and microbiologic features of the lower airway as independent variables and exacerbation as the outcome, using logistic regression modeling. Of 337 study participants, 70 were healthy, 181 had stable COPD, and 86 had exacerbated COPD. Differences in the microbial characteristics in the participating laboratories were not statistically significant. A cutoff point of 10(2) colony-forming units (CFU) per milliliter or greater for the identification of abnormal positive culture results for PPMs was defined using the 95th percentile in the pooled analysis of healthy individuals. Bronchial colonization of 10(2) CFU/mL or greater by PPMs was found in 53 patients with stable COPD (29%) and in 46 patients with exacerbated COPD (54%) (P<.001, chi(2) test), with a predominance of Haemophilus influenzae and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Higher microbial loads were associated with exacerbation and showed a statistically significant dose-response relationship after adjustment for covariates (odds ratio, 3.62; 95% confidence interval, 1.47-8.90), but P aeruginosa persisted as a statistically significant risk factor after adjustment for microbial load (odds ratio, 11.12; 95% confidence interval, 1.17-105.82). One quarter of the patients with COPD are colonized by PPMs during their stable periods. Exacerbation is associated with the overgrowth of PPMs and with the appearance of P aeruginosa in the lower airway, which is associated with exacerbation symptoms independent of load.
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            Spanish COPD Guidelines (GesEPOC): pharmacological treatment of stable COPD. Spanish Society of Pulmonology and Thoracic Surgery.

            Recognizing the clinical heterogeneity of COPD suggests a specific therapeutic approach directed by the so-called clinical phenotypes of the disease. The Spanish COPD Guidelines (GesEPOC) is an initiative of SEPAR, which, together with the scientific societies involved in COPD patient care, and the Spanish Patient Forum, has developed these new clinical practice guidelines. This present article describes the severity classification and the pharmacological treatment of stable COPD. GesEPOC identifies four clinical phenotypes with differential treatment: non-exacerbator, mixed COPD-asthma, exacerbator with emphysema and exacerbator with chronic bronchitis. Pharmacological treatment of COPD is based on bronchodilation in addition to other drugs depending on the clinical phenotype and severity. Severity is established by the BODE/BODEx multidimensional scales. Severity can also be approximated by assessing airflow obstruction, dyspnea, level of physical activity and history of exacerbations. GesEPOC is a new, more individualized approach to COPD treatment according to the clinical characteristics of the patients. Copyright © 2012 SEPAR. Published by Elsevier Espana. All rights reserved.
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              Infective exacerbations of chronic bronchitis: relation between bacteriologic etiology and lung function.

              In patients with severe COPD, acute infective exacerbations are frequent. Streptococcus pneumoniae and Haemophilus influenzae are the most commonly isolated bacteria in sputum cultures from these patients. We hypothesized that in patients with advanced disease, Gram-negative bacteria other than H influenzae play at least an equally important role. We evaluated clinical data and sputum culture results from 211 unselected COPD patients admitted to our hospital with an acute infective exacerbation of COPD. One hundred twelve patients fulfilled our protocol criteria of reliable microbiologic results and reproducible lung function tests; the patients were categorized according to the recently published three stages of severity. Lung function tests revealed an FEV1 of > or =50% of the predicted value in 30 patients (stage I), an FEV1 of 35% to <50% of the predicted value in 30 patients (stage II), and an FEV1 of < or =35% of the predicted value in 34 patients (stage III). Bacteria were classified into three groups: group 1 contained S pneumoniae and other Gram-positive cocci; group 2, H influenzae and Moraxella catarrhalis; and group 3, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp. For all patients together, the most frequently isolated bacteria were group 3 organisms (Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp, 48.2%), followed by group 1 organisms (S pneumoniae and other Gram-positive cocci, 30.4%), and group 2 organisms (H influenzae and M catarrhalis, 21.4%). In stage I patients, 14 of 30 had bacteria from group 1, seven of 30 had group 2, and nine of 30 had group 3. In stage II patients, eight of 30 had group 1 bacteria, 10 of 30 had group 2, and 12 of 30 had group 3. In stage III patients, 12 of 52 had group 1 bacteria, seven of 52 had group 2, and 22 of 52 had group 3. The three groups of bacteria causing infective exacerbations were unevenly distributed among the three severity stages of lung function (p=0.016). There is a correlation between deterioration of lung function and the bacteria isolated from patients with infective exacerbations of COPD. In acute infective exacerbations, Enterobacteriaceae and Pseudomonas spp are the predominant bacteria in patients with an FEV1 < or =35% of the predicted value.

                Author and article information

                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                Int J Chron Obstruct Pulmon Dis
                International Journal of COPD
                International Journal of Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease
                Dove Medical Press
                05 October 2017
                : 12
                : 2909-2915
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, Hospital Sant Jaume de Calella, Calella, Barcelona, Spain
                [2 ]Department of Medicine, Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellatera, Spain
                [3 ]Department of Pulmonary Medicine, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Carretera del Canyet sn, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain
                [4 ]Ciber de Enfermedades Respiratorias, Instituto de Salud Carlos III, Madrid, Spain
                [5 ]Fundació Institut d’Investigació en Ciències de la Salut Germans Trias i Pujol, Carretera del Canyet sn, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain
                [6 ]Department of Statistics, FIDMAG Germanes Hospitalaries Research Unit, Sant Boi de Llobregat, Barcelona, Spain
                [7 ]CiberSam – Ciber de Salud Mental, Madrid, Spain
                [8 ]Centre for Psychiatry Research, Department of Clinical Neuroscience, Karolinska Institutet, Stockholm, Sweden
                [9 ]Department of Microbiology, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Carretera del Canyet sn, Badalona, Barcelona, Spain
                [10 ]Department of Genetics and Microbiology of Universitat Autònoma de Barcelona, Bellatera, Spain
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Alicia Marin, Respiratory Service, Hospital Universitari Germans Trias i Pujol, Carretera de Canyet sn, 08916 Badalona, Barcelona, Spain, Tel +34 93 497 8920, Fax +34 93 497 8722, Email amarin.germanstrias@
                © 2017 Bruguera-Avila et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research

                Respiratory medicine

                nebulized antibiotics, bronchiectasis, copd, colistin


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