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      Salmon Intake Intervention in the Vulnerable Group of Young Polish Women to Maintain Vitamin D Status during the Autumn Season

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      Sustainability

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          Abstract

          Fish products are the main dietary source of vitamin D, but due to a low fish intake in the majority of European countries, an inadequate vitamin D intake is common, especially in the vulnerable group of young women for whom it is essential for the osteoporosis prevention. The aim of the presented study was to assess the possibility of applying salmon intake intervention for maintaining vitamin D status in young Polish women during the autumn season, in which in Poland there is not enough sunshine exposure to generate skin synthesis. The dietary intervention within VISA Study (Vitamin D In Salmon) comprised eight weeks of daily consumption of 50 g of Atlantic salmon and was conducted in a group of 47 women aged 20–30 years. Within the study, their changes of total serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25(OH)D) levels were analyzed and the effectiveness of the intervention depending on age, body mass index (BMI), and baseline 25(OH)D were assessed. Until the 4th week, 25(OH)D in the studied group decreased from 57.1 nmol/L to 39.9 nmol/L (p < 0.0001), but afterward it increased until the 8th week to 54.1 nmol/L (p = 0.0005), contributing to results not differing from the baseline (p = 0.7964). At the same time, the share of respondents characterized by an inadequate vitamin D status increased until the 4th week, but afterward, it decreased until the 8th week (p = 0.0002). Neither the age (in the assessed range), nor the BMI influenced 25(OH)D during the study, but only the baseline 25(OH)D was correlated with the BMI (p = 0.0419; R = −0.2980). The baseline 25(OH)D was associated with its levels during the intervention, as well as with 25(OH)D change from the baseline values (p < 0.0001). It may be concluded that, in spite of the initial decline of the 25(OH)D observed (probably connected to the starting time of the study), afterward the salmon intake intervention contributed to its increase, while the baseline 25(OH)D status was an important determinant of the intervention effectiveness during the autumn season.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency: an Endocrine Society clinical practice guideline.

          The objective was to provide guidelines to clinicians for the evaluation, treatment, and prevention of vitamin D deficiency with an emphasis on the care of patients who are at risk for deficiency. The Task Force was composed of a Chair, six additional experts, and a methodologist. The Task Force received no corporate funding or remuneration. Consensus was guided by systematic reviews of evidence and discussions during several conference calls and e-mail communications. The draft prepared by the Task Force was reviewed successively by The Endocrine Society's Clinical Guidelines Subcommittee, Clinical Affairs Core Committee, and cosponsoring associations, and it was posted on The Endocrine Society web site for member review. At each stage of review, the Task Force received written comments and incorporated needed changes. Considering that vitamin D deficiency is very common in all age groups and that few foods contain vitamin D, the Task Force recommended supplementation at suggested daily intake and tolerable upper limit levels, depending on age and clinical circumstances. The Task Force also suggested the measurement of serum 25-hydroxyvitamin D level by a reliable assay as the initial diagnostic test in patients at risk for deficiency. Treatment with either vitamin D(2) or vitamin D(3) was recommended for deficient patients. At the present time, there is not sufficient evidence to recommend screening individuals who are not at risk for deficiency or to prescribe vitamin D to attain the noncalcemic benefit for cardiovascular protection.
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            Prevalence of vitamin D deficiency among healthy adolescents.

            Although vitamin D deficiency has been documented as a frequent problem in studies of young adults, elderly persons, and children in other countries, there are limited data on the prevalence of this nutritional deficiency among healthy US teenagers. To determine the prevalence of vitamin D deficiency in healthy adolescents presenting for primary care. A cross-sectional clinic-based sample. An urban hospital in Boston. Three hundred seven adolescents recruited at an annual physical examination to undergo a blood test and nutritional and activity assessments. Serum levels of 25-hydroxyvitamin D (25OHD) and parathyroid hormone, anthropometric data, nutritional intake, and weekly physical activity and lifestyle variables that were potential risk factors for hypovitaminosis D. Seventy-four patients (24.1%) were vitamin D deficient (serum 25OHD level,
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              Vitamin D: Metabolism, Molecular Mechanism of Action, and Pleiotropic Effects.

              1,25-Dihydroxvitamin D3 [1,25(OH)2D3] is the hormonally active form of vitamin D. The genomic mechanism of 1,25(OH)2D3 action involves the direct binding of the 1,25(OH)2D3 activated vitamin D receptor/retinoic X receptor (VDR/RXR) heterodimeric complex to specific DNA sequences. Numerous VDR co-regulatory proteins have been identified, and genome-wide studies have shown that the actions of 1,25(OH)2D3 involve regulation of gene activity at a range of locations many kilobases from the transcription start site. The structure of the liganded VDR/RXR complex was recently characterized using cryoelectron microscopy, X-ray scattering, and hydrogen deuterium exchange. These recent technological advances will result in a more complete understanding of VDR coactivator interactions, thus facilitating cell and gene specific clinical applications. Although the identification of mechanisms mediating VDR-regulated transcription has been one focus of recent research in the field, other topics of fundamental importance include the identification and functional significance of proteins involved in the metabolism of vitamin D. CYP2R1 has been identified as the most important 25-hydroxylase, and a critical role for CYP24A1 in humans was noted in studies showing that inactivating mutations in CYP24A1 are a probable cause of idiopathic infantile hypercalcemia. In addition, studies using knockout and transgenic mice have provided new insight on the physiological role of vitamin D in classical target tissues as well as evidence of extraskeletal effects of 1,25(OH)2D3 including inhibition of cancer progression, effects on the cardiovascular system, and immunomodulatory effects in certain autoimmune diseases. Some of the mechanistic findings in mouse models have also been observed in humans. The identification of similar pathways in humans could lead to the development of new therapies to prevent and treat disease.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                (View ORCID Profile)
                Journal
                SUSTDE
                Sustainability
                Sustainability
                MDPI AG
                2071-1050
                April 2020
                April 02 2020
                : 12
                : 7
                : 2829
                Article
                10.3390/su12072829
                © 2020
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