The new SARS-CoV-2 coronavirus, which causes the COVID-19 disease, was reported in Wuhan, China, in December 2019. This new pathogen has spread rapidly around more than 200 countries, in which Spain has one of the world's highest mortality rates so far. Previous studies have supported an epidemiological hypothesis that weather conditions may affect the survival and spread of droplet-mediated viral diseases. However, some contradictory studies have also been reported in the same research line. In addition, many of these studies have been performed considering only meteorological factors, which can limit the reliability of the results. Herein, we report a spatio-temporal analysis for exploring the effect of daily temperature (mean, minimum and maximum) on the accumulated number of COVID-19 cases in the provinces of Spain. Non-meteorological factors such as population density, population by age, number of travellers and number of companies have also been considered for the analysis. No evidence suggesting a reduction in COVID-19 cases at warmer mean, minimum and maximum temperatures has been found. Nevertheless, these results need to be interpreted cautiously given the existing uncertainty about COVID-19 data, and should not be extrapolated to temperature ranges other than those analysed here for the early evolution period.
No evidence of a relationship between COVID-19 cases and temperature was found.
Results should not be extrapolated to other temperature ranges.
These results should be interpreted carefully due to data uncertainty and confounders.
It is important to account for non-meteorological, spatial and temporal effects.