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      Neurosystems: brain rhythms and cognitive processing

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          Abstract

          Neuronal rhythms are ubiquitous features of brain dynamics, and are highly correlated with cognitive processing. However, the relationship between the physiological mechanisms producing these rhythms and the functions associated with the rhythms remains mysterious. This article investigates the contributions of rhythms to basic cognitive computations (such as filtering signals by coherence and/or frequency) and to major cognitive functions (such as attention and multi‐modal coordination). We offer support to the premise that the physiology underlying brain rhythms plays an essential role in how these rhythms facilitate some cognitive operations.

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          Most cited references 127

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          Driving fast-spiking cells induces gamma rhythm and controls sensory responses.

          Cortical gamma oscillations (20-80 Hz) predict increases in focused attention, and failure in gamma regulation is a hallmark of neurological and psychiatric disease. Current theory predicts that gamma oscillations are generated by synchronous activity of fast-spiking inhibitory interneurons, with the resulting rhythmic inhibition producing neural ensemble synchrony by generating a narrow window for effective excitation. We causally tested these hypotheses in barrel cortex in vivo by targeting optogenetic manipulation selectively to fast-spiking interneurons. Here we show that light-driven activation of fast-spiking interneurons at varied frequencies (8-200 Hz) selectively amplifies gamma oscillations. In contrast, pyramidal neuron activation amplifies only lower frequency oscillations, a cell-type-specific double dissociation. We found that the timing of a sensory input relative to a gamma cycle determined the amplitude and precision of evoked responses. Our data directly support the fast-spiking-gamma hypothesis and provide the first causal evidence that distinct network activity states can be induced in vivo by cell-type-specific activation.
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            High gamma power is phase-locked to theta oscillations in human neocortex.

            We observed robust coupling between the high- and low-frequency bands of ongoing electrical activity in the human brain. In particular, the phase of the low-frequency theta (4 to 8 hertz) rhythm modulates power in the high gamma (80 to 150 hertz) band of the electrocorticogram, with stronger modulation occurring at higher theta amplitudes. Furthermore, different behavioral tasks evoke distinct patterns of theta/high gamma coupling across the cortex. The results indicate that transient coupling between low- and high-frequency brain rhythms coordinates activity in distributed cortical areas, providing a mechanism for effective communication during cognitive processing in humans.
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              Beta-band oscillations--signalling the status quo?

              In this review, we consider the potential functional role of beta-band oscillations, which at present is not yet well understood. We discuss evidence from recent studies on top-down mechanisms involved in cognitive processing, on the motor system and on the pathophysiology of movement disorders that suggest a unifying hypothesis: beta-band activity seems related to the maintenance of the current sensorimotor or cognitive state. We hypothesize that beta oscillations and/or coupling in the beta-band are expressed more strongly if the maintenance of the status quo is intended or predicted, than if a change is expected. Moreover, we suggest that pathological enhancement of beta-band activity is likely to result in an abnormal persistence of the status quo and a deterioration of flexible behavioural and cognitive control. (c) 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Eur J Neurosci
                Eur. J. Neurosci
                10.1111/(ISSN)1460-9568
                EJN
                The European Journal of Neuroscience
                John Wiley and Sons Inc. (Hoboken )
                0953-816X
                1460-9568
                13 December 2013
                March 2014
                : 39
                : 5 ( doiID: 10.1111/ejn.2014.39.issue-5 )
                : 705-719
                Affiliations
                [ 1 ] Department of Mathematics and StatisticsBoston University 111 Cummington Mall Boston MA 02215USA
                [ 2 ] Department of NeuroscienceBrown University Providence RIUSA
                [ 3 ] Department of MathematicsTufts University Medford MAUSA
                [ 4 ] Hull York Medical SchoolUniversity of York YorkUK
                Author notes
                [* ] Correspondence: Nancy Kopell, as above.

                E‐mail: nk@ 123456math.bu.edu

                [†]

                J.C. and M.M.C. contributed equally to this work.

                Article
                EJN12453
                10.1111/ejn.12453
                4916881
                24329933
                © 2013 The Authors. European Journal of Neuroscience published by Federation of European Neuroscience Societies and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.

                This is an open access article under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution‐NonCommercial‐NoDerivs License, which permits use and distribution in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited, the use is non‐commercial and no modifications or adaptations are made.

                Page count
                Pages: 15
                Product
                Funding
                Funded by: DMS
                Award ID: 1042134
                Award ID: 1225647
                Funded by: NIH
                Award ID: 5R01NS067199
                Categories
                Review
                Review
                Custom metadata
                2.0
                ejn12453
                March 2014
                Converter:WILEY_ML3GV2_TO_NLMPMC version:4.9.1 mode:remove_FC converted:22.06.2016

                Neurosciences

                attention, beta rhythm, coherence filtering, frequency filtering, gamma rhythm

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