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      Continuous glucose monitoring reveals a novel association between duration and severity of hypoglycemia, and small nerve fiber injury in patients with diabetes


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          Continuous glucose monitoring (CGM) has revealed that glycemic variability and low time in range are associated with albuminuria and retinopathy. We have investigated the relationship between glucose metrics derived from CGM and a highly sensitive measure of neuropathy using corneal confocal microscopy in participants with type 1 and type 2 diabetes.


          A total of 40 participants with diabetes and 28 healthy controls underwent quantification of corneal nerve fiber density (CNFD), corneal nerve branch density (CNBD), corneal nerve fiber length (CNFL) and inferior whorl length (IWL) and those with diabetes underwent CGM for four consecutive days.


          CNBD was significantly lower in patients with high glycemic variability (GV) compared to low GV (median (range) (25.0 (19.0–37.5) vs 38.6 (29.2–46.9); P = 0.007); in patients who spent >4% compared to <4% time in level 1 hypoglycemia (54-69 mg/dL) (25.0 (22.9–37.5) vs 37.5 (29.2–46.9); P = 0.045) and in patients who spent >1% compared to <1% time in level 2 hypoglycemia (<54 mg/dL) (25.0 (19.8–41.7) vs 35.4 (28.1–44.8); P = 0.04). Duration in level 1 hypoglycemia correlated with CNBD ( r = –0.342, P = 0.031). Duration in level 1 (181–250 mg/dL) and level 2 (>250 mg/dL) hyperglycemia did not correlate with CNFD ( P > 0.05), CNBD ( P > 0.05), CNFL ( P > 0.05) or IWL ( P > 0.05).


          Greater GV and duration in hypoglycemia, rather than hyperglycemia, are associated with nerve fiber loss in diabetes.

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          Effects of intensive glucose lowering in type 2 diabetes.

          Epidemiologic studies have shown a relationship between glycated hemoglobin levels and cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes. We investigated whether intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels would reduce cardiovascular events in patients with type 2 diabetes who had either established cardiovascular disease or additional cardiovascular risk factors. In this randomized study, 10,251 patients (mean age, 62.2 years) with a median glycated hemoglobin level of 8.1% were assigned to receive intensive therapy (targeting a glycated hemoglobin level below 6.0%) or standard therapy (targeting a level from 7.0 to 7.9%). Of these patients, 38% were women, and 35% had had a previous cardiovascular event. The primary outcome was a composite of nonfatal myocardial infarction, nonfatal stroke, or death from cardiovascular causes. The finding of higher mortality in the intensive-therapy group led to a discontinuation of intensive therapy after a mean of 3.5 years of follow-up. At 1 year, stable median glycated hemoglobin levels of 6.4% and 7.5% were achieved in the intensive-therapy group and the standard-therapy group, respectively. During follow-up, the primary outcome occurred in 352 patients in the intensive-therapy group, as compared with 371 in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 0.90; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.78 to 1.04; P=0.16). At the same time, 257 patients in the intensive-therapy group died, as compared with 203 patients in the standard-therapy group (hazard ratio, 1.22; 95% CI, 1.01 to 1.46; P=0.04). Hypoglycemia requiring assistance and weight gain of more than 10 kg were more frequent in the intensive-therapy group (P<0.001). As compared with standard therapy, the use of intensive therapy to target normal glycated hemoglobin levels for 3.5 years increased mortality and did not significantly reduce major cardiovascular events. These findings identify a previously unrecognized harm of intensive glucose lowering in high-risk patients with type 2 diabetes. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00000620.) 2008 Massachusetts Medical Society
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            Glucose control and vascular complications in veterans with type 2 diabetes.

            The effects of intensive glucose control on cardiovascular events in patients with long-standing type 2 diabetes mellitus remain uncertain. We randomly assigned 1791 military veterans (mean age, 60.4 years) who had a suboptimal response to therapy for type 2 diabetes to receive either intensive or standard glucose control. Other cardiovascular risk factors were treated uniformly. The mean number of years since the diagnosis of diabetes was 11.5, and 40% of the patients had already had a cardiovascular event. The goal in the intensive-therapy group was an absolute reduction of 1.5 percentage points in the glycated hemoglobin level, as compared with the standard-therapy group. The primary outcome was the time from randomization to the first occurrence of a major cardiovascular event, a composite of myocardial infarction, stroke, death from cardiovascular causes, congestive heart failure, surgery for vascular disease, inoperable coronary disease, and amputation for ischemic gangrene. The median follow-up was 5.6 years. Median glycated hemoglobin levels were 8.4% in the standard-therapy group and 6.9% in the intensive-therapy group. The primary outcome occurred in 264 patients in the standard-therapy group and 235 patients in the intensive-therapy group (hazard ratio in the intensive-therapy group, 0.88; 95% confidence interval [CI], 0.74 to 1.05; P=0.14). There was no significant difference between the two groups in any component of the primary outcome or in the rate of death from any cause (hazard ratio, 1.07; 95% CI, 0.81 to 1.42; P=0.62). No differences between the two groups were observed for microvascular complications. The rates of adverse events, predominantly hypoglycemia, were 17.6% in the standard-therapy group and 24.1% in the intensive-therapy group. Intensive glucose control in patients with poorly controlled type 2 diabetes had no significant effect on the rates of major cardiovascular events, death, or microvascular complications with the exception of progression of albuminuria (P = 0.01) [added]. (ClinicalTrials.gov number, NCT00032487.) 2009 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial/Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications Study at 30 Years: Overview

              OBJECTIVE The Diabetes Control and Complications Trial (DCCT) was designed to test the glucose hypothesis and determine whether the complications of type 1 diabetes (T1DM) could be prevented or delayed. The Epidemiology of Diabetes Interventions and Complications (EDIC) observational follow-up determined the durability of the DCCT effects on the more-advanced stages of diabetes complications including cardiovascular disease (CVD). RESEARCH DESIGN AND METHODS The DCCT (1982–1993) was a controlled clinical trial in 1,441 subjects with T1DM comparing intensive therapy (INT), aimed at achieving levels of glycemia as close to the nondiabetic range as safely possible, with conventional therapy (CON), which aimed to maintain safe asymptomatic glucose control. INT utilized three or more daily insulin injections or insulin pump therapy guided by self-monitored glucose. EDIC (1994–present) is an observational study of the DCCT cohort. RESULTS The DCCT followed >99% of the cohort for a mean of 6.5 years and demonstrated a 35–76% reduction in the early stages of microvascular disease with INT, with a median HbA1c of 7%, compared with CONV, with a median HbA1c of 9%. The major adverse effect of INT was a threefold increased risk of hypoglycemia, which was not associated with a decline in cognitive function or quality of life. EDIC showed a durable effect of initial assigned therapies despite a loss of the glycemic separation (metabolic memory) and demonstrated that the reduction in early-stage complications during the DCCT translated into substantial reductions in severe complications and CVD. CONCLUSIONS DCCT/EDIC has demonstrated the effectiveness of INT in reducing the long-term complications of T1DM and improving the prospects for a healthy life span.

                Author and article information

                Endocr Connect
                Endocr Connect
                Endocrine Connections
                Bioscientifica Ltd (Bristol )
                14 October 2022
                01 December 2022
                : 11
                : 12
                : e220352
                [1 ]Department of Medicine , Weill Cornell Medicine-Qatar, Doha, Qatar
                [2 ]Department of Internal Medicine , Albany Medical Center Hospital, Albany, New York, USA
                [3 ]Department of Mechanical and Industrial Engineering , Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
                [4 ]KINDI Center for computing research , Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
                [5 ]Center for Advanced Materials , Qatar University, Doha, Qatar
                [6 ]Faculty of Healthy Sciences , Khyber Medical University, Peshawar, Pakistan
                [7 ]Institute of Cardiovascular Medicine , University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
                [8 ]Diabetes and Neuropathy Research , Department of Eye and Vision Sciences and Pain Research Institute, Institute of Ageing and Chronic Disease, University of Liverpool and Aintree University Hospital NHS Foundation Trust, Liverpool, UK
                [9 ]Department of Diabetes and Endocrinology , Royal Liverpool and Broadgreen University NHS Hospital Trust, Liverpool, UK
                [10 ]Division of Endocrinology , Diabetes and Gastroenterology, University of Manchester, Manchester, UK
                [11 ]Hamad Medical Corporation , National Diabetes Center, Doha, Qatar
                Author notes
                Correspondence should be addressed to R A Malik: ram2045@ 123456qatar-med.cornell.edu
                Author information
                © The authors

                This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License.

                : 11 October 2022
                : 14 October 2022

                ccm,diabetes,hypoglycemia,peripheral neuropathy,cgm,tir
                ccm, diabetes, hypoglycemia, peripheral neuropathy, cgm, tir


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