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      Involvement of PD-L1 on tumor cells in the escape from host immune system and tumor immunotherapy by PD-L1 blockade

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          Abstract

          PD-1 is a receptor of the Ig superfamily that negatively regulates T cell antigen receptor signaling by interacting with the specific ligands (PD-L) and is suggested to play a role in the maintenance of self-tolerance. In the present study, we examined possible roles of the PD-1/PD-L system in tumor immunity. Transgenic expression of PD-L1, one of the PD-L, in P815 tumor cells rendered them less susceptible to the specific T cell antigen receptor-mediated lysis by cytotoxic T cells in vitro, and markedly enhanced their tumorigenesis and invasiveness in vivo in the syngeneic hosts as compared with the parental tumor cells that lacked endogenous PD-L. Both effects could be reversed by anti-PD-L1 Ab. Survey of murine tumor lines revealed that all of the myeloma cell lines examined naturally expressed PD-L1. Growth of the myeloma cells in normal syngeneic mice was inhibited significantly albeit transiently by the administration of anti-PD-L1 Ab in vivo and was suppressed completely in the syngeneic PD-1-deficient mice. These results suggest that the expression of PD-L1 can serve as a potent mechanism for potentially immunogenic tumors to escape from host immune responses and that blockade of interaction between PD-1 and PD-L may provide a promising strategy for specific tumor immunotherapy.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Role of bone marrow-derived cells in presenting MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens.

          Many tumors express tumor-specific antigens capable of being presented to CD8+ T cells by major histocompatibility complex (MHC) class I molecules. Antigen presentation models predict that the tumor cell itself should present these antigens to T cells. However, when conditions for the priming of tumor-specific responses were examined in mice, no detectable presentation of MHC class I-restricted tumor antigens by the tumor itself was found. Rather, tumor antigens were exclusively presented by host bone marrow-derived cells. Thus, MHC class I-restricted antigens are efficiently transferred in vivo to bone marrow-derived antigen-presenting cells, which suggests that human leukocyte antigen matching may be less critical in the application of tumor vaccines than previously thought.
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            Immunological studies on PD-1 deficient mice: implication of PD-1 as a negative regulator for B cell responses.

            PD-1, an Ig superfamily member, contains an immunoreceptor tyrosine-based inhibitory motif in the cytoplasmic tail. It is expressed in a minor fraction of CD4-CD8- normal thymocytes and induced in peripheral lymphocytes following activation. To assess the possible roles of PD-1 in the immune responses, PD-1-deficient (PD-1-/-) mice were generated by a gene-targeting strategy. PD-1-4- mice developed and grew normally. Although the thymus was apparently normal, PD-1-/- mice showed moderate but consistent splenomegaly, which reflected the increased cellularity of both lymphoid and myeloid cells. The proliferative response of B cells by anti-IgM antibodies, but not of T cells by an anti-CD3 (145-2C11) mAb in vitro, was augmented in PD-1-/- mice as compared with control littermates. PD-1-/- mice showed increased serum levels of IgG2b, IgA and most strikingly IgG3, while those of IgM and IgG1 were comparable with control mice. Furthermore, PD-1-/- mice exhibited significantly augmented IgG3 anti-DNP antibody response to a type 2 T-independent antigen, DNP-Ficoll, with comparable IgM and IgG1 antibody responses with littermate controls. In the peritoneal cavity, the B-1 cell population in PD-1-/- mice exhibited significantly reduced expression of CD5, a negative regulator of B-1 cell activation, despite a marginal increase in the number of B-1 cells. Thus, PD-1 was suggested to be involved in the negative regulation for particular aspects of B cell proliferation and differentiation including class switching.
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              PD-1: an inhibitory immunoreceptor involved in peripheral tolerance.

              PD-1 deficiency causes a variety of autoimmune diseases. Inhibitory signaling through the PD-1 receptor might therefore be involved in the regulation of peripheral tolerance. The constitutive expression of PD-1 ligands (PD-L1 and PD-L2) on parenchymal cells of heart, lung and kidney suggests that the PD-1-PD-L system could provide unique negative signaling to help prevent autoimmune diseases.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                Proceedings of the National Academy of Sciences
                0027-8424
                1091-6490
                September 17 2002
                September 06 2002
                September 17 2002
                : 99
                : 19
                : 12293-12297
                Article
                10.1073/pnas.192461099
                129438
                12218188
                © 2002
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