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      Call for Papers: Beyond Biology: The Crucial Role of Sex and Gender in Oncology

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      Significance of miR-148a in Colorectal Neoplasia: Downregulation of miR-148a Contributes to the Carcinogenesis and Cell Invasion of Colorectal Cancer

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          Abstract

          Objective: Colorectal cancer (CRC) develops through the deregulation of gene expression and the accumulation of epigenetic abnormalities, leading to tumor cell acquisition of malignant features. MicroRNAs (miRNAs) play a critical role in cancer development, where they can act as oncogenes or oncosuppressors. Methods: miR-148a expression was measured by qRT-PCR in patients with colorectal adenoma (n = 21) and CRC (stage I-IV, n = 159) using formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded tissue samples. In situ hybridization (ISH) using an miR-148a-specific probe was also performed. To further confirm the direct effect of miR-148a on matrix metalloproteinase (MMP)7 expression in CRC, MTT and cell invasion assays using HT29 and WiDr cells were performed. Results: miR-148a expression was found to be clearly downregulated in high-grade adenoma compared to low-grade adenoma on both qRT-PCR and ISH analysis. Downregulation of miR-148a expression was significantly correlated with advanced clinicopathological features and was an independent prognostic classifier in patients with stage III CRC. In CRC cells and tissues, miR-148a expression was inversely correlated with the expression of MMP7. Conclusion: We showed the collaborative participation of miR-148a and MMP7 in CRC cell invasion. These results also demonstrate that the downregulation of miR-148a expression promotes CRC progression, especially carcinogenesis and cancer cell invasion.

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          Levamisole and fluorouracil for adjuvant therapy of resected colon carcinoma.

          Twelve hundred ninety-six patients with resected colon cancer that either was locally invasive (Stage B2) or had regional nodal involvement (Stage C) were randomly assigned to observation or to treatment for one year with levamisole combined with fluorouracil. Patients with Stage C disease could also be randomly assigned to treatment with levamisole alone. The median follow-up time at this writing is 3 years (range, 2 to 5 1/2). Among the patients with Stage C disease, therapy with levamisole plus fluorouracil reduced the risk of cancer recurrence by 41 percent (P less than 0.0001). The overall death rate was reduced by 33 percent (P approximately 0.006). Treatment with levamisole alone had no detectable effect. The results in the patients with Stage B2 disease were equivocal and too preliminary to allow firm conclusions. Toxic effects of levamisole alone were infrequent, usually consisting of mild nausea with occasional dermatitis or leukopenia, and those of levamisole plus fluorouracil were essentially the same as those of fluorouracil alone--i.e., nausea, vomiting, stomatitis, diarrhea, dermatitis, and leukopenia. These reactions were usually not severe and did not greatly impede patients' compliance with their regimen. We conclude that adjuvant therapy with levamisole and fluorouracil should be standard treatment for Stage C colon carcinoma. Since most patients in our study were treated by community oncologists, this approach should be readily adaptable to conventional medical practice.
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            Epigenetic silencing of miR-137 is an early event in colorectal carcinogenesis.

            Global downregulation of microRNAs (miRNA) is a common feature in colorectal cancer (CRC). Whereas CpG island hypermethylation constitutes a mechanism for miRNA silencing, this field largely remains unexplored. Herein, we describe the epigenetic regulation of miR-137 and its contribution to colorectal carcinogenesis. We determined the methylation status of miR-137 CpG island in a panel of six CRC cell lines and 409 colorectal tissues [21 normal colonic mucosa from healthy individuals (N-N), 160 primary CRC tissues and their corresponding normal mucosa (N-C), and 68 adenomas]. TaqMan reverse transcription-PCR and in situ hybridization were used to analyze miR-137 expression. In vitro functional analysis of miR-137 was performed. Gene targets of miR-137 were identified using a combination of bioinformatic and transcriptomic approaches. We experimentally validated the miRNA:mRNA interactions. Methylation of the miR-137 CpG island was a cancer-specific event and was frequently observed in CRC cell lines (100%), adenomas (82.3%), and CRC (81.4%), but not in N-C (14.4%; P < 0.0001 for CRC) and N-N (4.7%; P < 0.0001 for CRC). Expression of miR-137 was restricted to the colonocytes in normal mucosa and inversely correlated with the level of methylation. Transfection of miR-137 precursor in CRC cells significantly inhibited cell proliferation. Gene expression profiling after miR-137 transfection discovered novel potential mRNA targets. We validated the interaction between miR-137 and LSD-1. Our data indicate that miR-137 acts as a tumor suppressor in the colon and is frequently silenced by promoter hypermethylation. Methylation silencing of miR-137 in colorectal adenomas suggests it to be an early event, which has prognostic and therapeutic implications. (c)2010 AACR.
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              MicroRNA-148a suppresses the epithelial-mesenchymal transition and metastasis of hepatoma cells by targeting Met/Snail signaling.

              Metastasis is responsible for the rapid recurrence and poor survival of malignancies. Epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) has a critical role in metastasis. Increasing evidence indicates that EMT can be regulated by microRNAs (miRNAs). miR-148a is a liver-abundant miRNA. However, the role of miR-148a in the development of liver cancer remains largely unknown. In this study, we found that, compared with normal livers, miR-148a was significantly decreased in hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) tissues, especially in those with the portal vein tumor thrombus. An in vitro transwell assay and an in vivo orthotopic liver xenograft model showed that the restoration of miR-148a expression significantly repressed the migration and pulmonary metastasis of hepatoma cells. Linear regression analysis revealed a positive correlation between the expression of miR-148a and the mRNA level of E-cadherin gene in human HCC tissues. Both gain- and loss-of-function studies disclosed that miR-148a promoted the expression of epithelial marker (E-cadherin) and reduced the levels of mesenchymal markers (N-cadherin, fibronectin or vimentin) in hepatoma cells. These data suggest that miR-148a may suppress EMT and cancer metastasis. Further mechanistic investigations showed that miR-148a directly inhibited Met expression by binding to its 3'-UTR. Moreover, the reintroduction of miR-148a attenuated the downstream signaling of Met, like activated phosphorylation of AKT-Ser473 and inhibitory phosphorylation of GSK-3β-Ser9, and consequently reduced the nuclear accumulation of Snail, a transcription factor that promotes EMT. Taken together, miR-148a may negatively regulate Met/Snail signaling and therefore inhibit the EMT and metastasis of hepatoma cells. These findings highlight the significance of miR-148a downregulation in tumor progression and implicate miR-148a as an attractive candidate for cancer therapy.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                PAT
                Pathobiology
                10.1159/issn.1015-2008
                Pathobiology
                S. Karger AG
                1015-2008
                1423-0291
                2015
                October 2015
                22 September 2015
                : 82
                : 5
                : 233-241
                Affiliations
                Departments of aMolecular Pathology and bGastroenterological and Transplant Surgery, Applied Life Sciences, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, Hiroshima, Japan
                Author notes
                *Wataru Yasui, Department of Molecular Pathology, Institute of Biomedical and Health Sciences, Hiroshima University, 1-2-3 Kasumi, Minami-ku, Hiroshima 734-8551 (Japan), E-Mail wyasui@hiroshima-u.ac.jp
                Article
                438826 Pathobiology 2015;82:233-241
                10.1159/000438826
                26389729
                a6e996b3-825b-4f47-9c72-f3966bf246e8
                © 2015 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                History
                : 20 March 2015
                : 20 July 2015
                Page count
                Figures: 4, Tables: 3, References: 32, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Original Paper

                Oncology & Radiotherapy,Pathology,Surgery,Obstetrics & Gynecology,Pharmacology & Pharmaceutical medicine,Hematology
                miR-148a,MicroRNAs,Colorectal cancer,Matrix metalloproteinase 7

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