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      Patterns of population differentiation in annual killifishes from the Paraná-Uruguay-La Plata Basin: the role of vicariance and dispersal : Vicariance and dispersal in Neotropical annual killifishes

      , , , , ,

      Journal of Biogeography

      Wiley-Blackwell

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          Most cited references 14

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          Molecular Markers, Natural History and Evolution

           John C. Avise (1994)
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            The general stochastic model of nucleotide substitution.

            DNA sequence evolution through nucleotide substitution may be assimilated to a stationary Markov process. The fundamental equations of the general model, with 12 independent substitution parameters, are used to obtain a formula which corrects the effect of multiple and parallel substitutions on the measure of evolutionary divergence between two homologous sequences. We show that only reversible models, with six independent parameters, allow the calculation of the substitution rates. Simulation experiments on DNA sequence evolution through nucleotide substitution call into question the effectiveness of the general model (and of any other more detailed description); nevertheless, the general model results are slightly superior to any of its particular cases.
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              Enzyme clearing of alcian blue stained whole small vertebrates for demonstration of cartilage.

               G Dingerkus,  L Uhler (1977)
              Preparation of small vertebrates cleared after alcian blue staining of cartilage is facilitated by trypsin digestion. Specimens are fixed in formation, washed, skinned, and eviscerated. After staining in a solution of alcian blue in acetic acid-alcohol for 24-48 hours, they are transferred to water through graded alcohols. Excess alcian blue is removed over a period of up to three weeks by changes every 2-3 days of 1% trypsin in approximately one-third-saturated sodium borate. Bony tissues may be stained after this in a solution of alizarin red S in 0.5% KOH. Specimens are bleached if necessary and dehydrated through graded KOH-glycerine mixtures for storage in glycerine. Since alcohol treatment in addition to formalin fixation does not affect results with this method, it should be useful to researchers who want to study the cartilage or cartilaginous skeletons in museum specimens, which are routinely fixed in formalin and stored in alcohol.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Journal of Biogeography
                Wiley-Blackwell
                03050270
                September 2012
                September 08 2012
                : 39
                : 9
                : 1707-1719
                Article
                10.1111/j.1365-2699.2012.02722.x
                © 2012

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