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      Postoperative pain management with transdermal fentanyl after forefoot surgery: a randomized, placebo-controlled study

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          Quality of life is decreased in patients with hallux valgus deformity, mainly because of pain. Significant improvement is usually achieved by surgery. However, postoperative pain can be moderate to severe for 2–3 days. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the use of transdermal fentanyl for postoperative pain management after forefoot surgery.


          Sixty patients undergoing hallux valgus or hallux rigidus surgery were allocated to receive a patch delivering either fentanyl 12 μg/hour or placebo for postoperative pain. The consumption of rescue opioid oxycodone, the primary outcome measure, was evaluated daily until the fourth postoperative day. Total consumption of oxycodone during the study period was also assessed. Pain scores and possible adverse effects were evaluated every 6 hours during the first 24 hours and on the fourth postoperative day.


          The use of rescue opioid was low in both groups, the median (range) consumption of oxycodone being 10 (0–50) mg on the day of surgery (no difference between the groups, P=0.31) and 0 (0–35) mg thereafter. The total combined consumption was 10 (0–105) mg in the fentanyl group and 20 (0–70) mg in the placebo group ( P=0.23). There were no statistically significant differences in pain scores or adverse effects between the groups.


          As a part of multimodal analgesia with ibuprofen and acetaminophen, a patch delivering fentanyl 12 μg/hour did not significantly decrease the consumption of rescue opioid or pain scores after forefoot surgery.

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          Most cited references 19

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          Society for Ambulatory Anesthesia guidelines for the management of postoperative nausea and vomiting.

          The present guidelines were compiled by a multidisciplinary international panel of individuals with interest and expertise in postoperative nausea and vomiting (PONV) under the auspices of The Society of Ambulatory Anesthesia. The panel critically evaluated the current medical literature on PONV to provide an evidence-based reference tool for the management of adults and children who are undergoing surgery and are at increased risk for PONV. In brief, these guidelines identify risk factors for PONV in adults and children; recommend approaches for reducing baseline risks for PONV; identify the most effective antiemetic monotherapy and combination therapy regimens for PONV prophylaxis; recommend approaches for treatment of PONV when it occurs; and provide an algorithm for the management of individuals at increased risk for PONV.
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            Analgesic treatment after laparoscopic cholecystectomy: a critical assessment of the evidence.

             Thue Bisgaard (2006)
            Acute pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy is complex in nature. The pain pattern does not resemble pain after other laparoscopic procedures, suggesting that analgesic treatment might be procedure specific and multimodal. Randomized trials of analgesia after laparoscopic cholecystectomy were identified by systematic electronic literature searches (1985 to June 2005) supplemented with manual searching. The trials were categorized by well-defined criteria into high, moderate, or poor methodologic quality. Conclusions were based on trials of high and moderate methodologic quality. In total, 64 randomized analgesic trials were identified, comprising a total of 5,018 evaluated patients. The literature suggests a multimodal analgesic regimen consisting of a preoperative single dose of dexamethasone, incisional local anesthetics (at the beginning or at the end of surgery, depending on preference), and continuous treatment with nonsteroidal antiinflammatory drugs (or cyclooxygenase-2 inhibitors) during the first 3-4 days. Opioids should be used only when other analgesic techniques fail.
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              Survey of postoperative analgesia following ambulatory surgery.

              The quality of pain relief during the first 48 hours following ambulatory surgery has been poorly documented. This questionnaire study was performed to evaluate the nature and severity of pain after the patient leaves the hospital. 1100 patients in the age group 5-88 years who underwent ambulatory surgery during a period of 6 months were asked to complete a questionnaire 48 h after the end of the operation. In the case of children, parents were asked to complete a similar questionnaire. The questions were related to pain experienced during the first 48 h after surgery and to the nature and severity of postoperative complications. A total of 1035 out of the 1100 patients returned the questionnaire, 94.1%. Overall the majority (65%) of patients had only mild pain at home; however, patients undergoing certain types of surgery had moderate-to-severe pain: inguinal hernia surgery (62% patients), orthopaedic surgery (41%), hand surgery (37%) and varicose vein surgery (36%). In these patients the severity of pain did not decrease during the 2-day study period. About 10% patients had more severe pain than they had anticipated, and 20% had difficulty in sleeping at night due to severe pain. Despite this, over 95% of patients were satisfied with management of postoperative pain. Nausea (20%), tiredness (20%) and vomiting (8%) were the commonest complications reported during the first 48 h. A significant association was found between the administration of a general anaesthetic and the incidence of nausea postoperatively. A large number of patients were alone at home after the operation (28.4%); some (3.8%) had no access to a relative or friend in case of need. Our results show that about 35% of day-surgery patients experience moderate-to-severe pain at home in spite of analgesic medication. About 20% of patients had sleep problems due to severe pain. However, only 5% of patients were dissatisfied. Better analgesic techniques are necessary for patients undergoing certain types of surgery. Patient information and follow-up routines need to be improved.

                Author and article information

                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                16 January 2015
                : 8
                : 39-45
                [1 ]Department of Anaesthesiology, Intensive Care, Emergency Care and Pain Medicine of Turku University Hospital and University of Turku, Turku
                [2 ]Department of Anaesthesia, Hospital Orton, Invalid Foundation, Helsinki, Finland
                [3 ]Terveystalo Clinic Hospital, Helsinki, Finland
                [4 ]Department of Biostatistics, University of Turku, Turku, Finland
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Riika Merivirta, TYKS, PL 52, FI-20521 Turku, Finland, Tel +358 2313 0704, Fax +358 2313 9254, Email riika.merivirta@ 123456tyks.fi
                © 2015 Merivirta et al. This work is published by Dove Medical Press Limited, and licensed under Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License

                The full terms of the License are available at http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Original Research


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