Hybrids of two Drosophila species show transposable element derepression and piRNA pathway malfunction, revealing adaptive evolution of piRNA pathway components.
The Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway defends the germline of animals from the deleterious activity of selfish transposable elements (TEs) through small-RNA mediated silencing. Adaptation to novel invasive TEs is proposed to occur by incorporating their sequences into the piRNA pool that females produce and deposit into their eggs, which then propagates immunity against specific TEs to future generations. In support of this model, the F1 offspring of crosses between strains of the same Drosophila species sometimes suffer from germline derepression of paternally inherited TE families, caused by a failure of the maternal strain to produce the piRNAs necessary for their regulation. However, many protein components of the Drosophila piRNA pathway exhibit signatures of positive selection, suggesting that they also contribute to the evolution of host genome defense. Here we investigate piRNA pathway function and TE regulation in the F1 hybrids of interspecific crosses between D. melanogaster and D. simulans and compare them with intraspecific control crosses of D. melanogaster. We confirm previous reports showing that intraspecific crosses are characterized by derepression of paternally inherited TE families that are rare or absent from the maternal genome and piRNA pool, consistent with the role of maternally deposited piRNAs in shaping TE silencing. In contrast to the intraspecific cross, we discover that interspecific hybrids are characterized by widespread derepression of both maternally and paternally inherited TE families. Furthermore, the pattern of derepression of TE families in interspecific hybrids cannot be attributed to their paucity or absence from the piRNA pool of the maternal species. Rather, we demonstrate that interspecific hybrids closely resemble piRNA effector-protein mutants in both TE misregulation and aberrant piRNA production. We suggest that TE derepression in interspecific hybrids largely reflects adaptive divergence of piRNA pathway genes rather than species-specific differences in TE-derived piRNAs.
Eukaryotic genomes contain large quantities of transposable elements (TEs), short self-replicating DNA sequences that can move within the genome. The selfish replication of TEs has potentially drastic consequences for the host, such as disruption of gene function, induction of sterility, and initiation or exacerbation of some cancers. Like the adaptive immune system that defends our bodies against pathogens, the Piwi-interacting RNA (piRNA) pathway defends animal genomes against the harmful effects of TEs. Fundamental to piRNA-mediated defense is the production of small noncoding RNAs that act like antibodies to target replicating TEs for destruction by piRNA-effector proteins. piRNAs are expected to diverge rapidly between species in response to genome infection by increasingly disparate TEs. Here, we tested this hypothesis by examining how differences in piRNAs between two species of fruit fly relate to TE “immunity” in their hybrid offspring. Because piRNAs are maternally deposited, we expected excessive replication of paternal TEs in hybrids. Surprisingly, we observe increased activity of both maternal and paternal TEs, together with defects in piRNA production that are reminiscent of piRNA effector-protein mutants. Our observations reveal that piRNA effector-proteins do not function properly in hybrids, and we propose that adaptive evolution among piRNA effector-proteins contributes to host genome defense and leads to the functional incompatibilities that we observe in hybrids.