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      Interleukin-8 Is a Powerful Prognostic Predictor of All-Cause and Cardiovascular Mortality in Dialytic Patients

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          Abstract

          Background: Cohort studies have demonstrated an association between C-reactive protein (CRP) and interleukin-6 (IL-6) and all-cause and cardiovascular mortality in end-stage renal disease (ESRD) patients. Interleukin-8 (IL-8) appears to be not only the plasma expression of the acute-phase response but also a direct pathogenetic mediator of the atherosclerotic process. Methods: To evaluate the role of IL-8 in predicting outcome, 76 chronic dialytic patients were prospectively followed for 18 months. At baseline, blood samples were taken for analysis of high-sensitivity CRP, IL-6, IL-8 and other standard laboratory analyses. Results: Median IL-8 was 5.2 mg/l, therefore near half of the patients had IL-8 values within the range of ‘normal limits’. IL-6 and CRP were significantly correlated (r = 0.45, p < 0.001) and a positive correlation was also found between IL-6 and IL-8 (r = 0.39, p < 0.001). The correlation coefficient between IL-6 and CRP was 0.43 (p < 0.001) and 0.50 (p < 0.001) in patients without and with history and/or clinical signs of cardiovascular disease, respectively. After a follow-up of 1.5 years, 8 patients had died from cardiovascular causes and another 7 patients for other reasons; furthermore 9 major nonfatal cardiovascular events were recorded. Stepwise regression analysis showed IL-8 as the strongest independent predictor of all-cause and cardiovascular events (p = 0.0025) even after adjustment for age and dialytic age, followed by IL-6 and CRP (p < 0.01). Conclusion: Despite a small population and a relatively short follow-up period, this study firstly demonstrated that IL-8 is a powerful independent predictive factor for cardiovascular and overall mortality cause in ESRD patients.

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          Most cited references 13

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          Clinical epidemiology of cardiovascular disease in chronic renal disease.

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            Plasma concentration of asymmetrical dimethylarginine and mortality in patients with end-stage renal disease: a prospective study

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              Molecular cloning of a human monocyte-derived neutrophil chemotactic factor (MDNCF) and the induction of MDNCF mRNA by interleukin 1 and tumor necrosis factor

              The cDNA coding for human monocyte-derived neutrophil-specific chemotactic factor (MDNCF) was cloned from LPS-stimulated human monocyte mRNA. The cDNA sequence codes for a polypeptide consisting of 99 amino acids, including a putative signal sequence. Comparison of the deduced amino acid sequence with the NH2-terminal amino acid sequence of natural MDNCF shows that the mature functional protein comprises 72 amino acids, beginning with serine at residue 28. The deduced amino acid sequence shows striking similarity to several platelet-derived factors, a v-src-induced protein, a growth-regulated gene product (gro), and an IFN-gamma inducible protein. The availability of the MDNCF cDNA enabled us to use it as a probe to identify inducers of MDNCF mRNA expression in human PBMC. MDNCF mRNA was increased greater than 10-fold within 1 h after stimulation with LPS, IL-1, or TNF, but not by IFN-gamma, IFN-alpha, or IL-2. Furthermore, we also determined that LPS, IL-1, and TNF stimulated the mononuclear cells to produce biologically active MDNCF. This observation may account for the in vivo capacity of IL-1 and TNF to induce netrophil infiltrates.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEC
                Nephron Clin Pract
                10.1159/issn.1660-2110
                Nephron Clinical Practice
                S. Karger AG
                1660-2110
                2006
                January 2006
                14 October 2005
                : 102
                : 2
                : c51-c58
                Affiliations
                aInternal Medicine and bDepartment of Neuroscience, University of Pisa, Pisa, cInstitute of Clinical Physiology, National Research Council, Pisa, and dDialytic Unit, Le Scotte Hospital, Poggibonsi, Italy; eResearch Extracorporeal, Fresenius Medical Care, Bad Homburg, Germany
                Article
                88923 Nephron Clin Pract 2006;102:c51–c58
                10.1159/000088923
                16224196
                © 2006 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 42, Pages: 1
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/88923
                Categories
                Original Paper

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