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      Desflurane Preconditioning Protects Against Renal Ischemia–Reperfusion Injury and Inhibits Inflammation and Oxidative Stress in Rats Through Regulating the Nrf2-Keap1-ARE Signaling Pathway

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          Abstract

          Objective

          Kidney is sensitive to ischemia–reperfusion (I/R) injury because of its special structure and function. In this study, we aimed to explore the mechanism of desflurane (DFE) preconditioning effecting on renal I/R injury in rats.

          Methods

          Renal I/R injury rats model was constructed, and the expressions of serum renal function parameters (blood urea nitrogen (BUN) and serum creatinine (SCr)) and lipid peroxidation-related factors were detected using corresponding commercial kits to assess the degrees of renal functional damage and oxidative stress. Hematoxylin–-eosin (HE) staining and Masson trichrome staining were applied to measure the renal histologic damage. The expressions of inflammation-related factors were determined by ELISA assay. The cell apoptosis was analyzed using TUNEL, Western blot and immunohistochemistry (IHC). IHC was also used to detect the number of myeloperoxidase (MPO)-positive cells. The expressions of proteins associated with the Nrf2-Keap1-ARE pathway were assessed by Western blot and IHC.

          Results

          DFE preconditioning inhibited I/R injury-induced BUN and SCr increase and renal histologic injury in rats. Also, DFE suppressed the inflammation, apoptosis and oxidative stress caused by renal I/R injury in vivo. In addition, DFE preconditioning repressed peroxide-related factors (MDA, MPO and NO) expressions and promoted antioxidant-related factors (GSH, SOD, GPx and CAT) expressions. In addition, DFE promoted Nrf2-Keap1-ARE-related proteins including Nrf2, NQO1, HO-1, γ-GCS, GSR and GCLc expressions.

          Conclusion

          DFE preconditioning protected the kidney as well as inhibited the inflammation, cell apoptosis and oxidative stress in renal I/R injury rats by activating the Nrf2-Keap1-ARE signaling pathway.

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          Most cited references 41

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          TLR4 activation mediates kidney ischemia/reperfusion injury.

          Ischemia/reperfusion injury (IRI) may activate innate immunity through the engagement of TLRs by endogenous ligands. TLR4 expressed within the kidney is a potential mediator of innate activation and inflammation. Using a mouse model of kidney IRI, we demonstrated a significant increase in TLR4 expression by tubular epithelial cells (TECs) and infiltrating leukocytes within the kidney following ischemia. TLR4 signaling through the MyD88-dependent pathway was required for the full development of kidney IRI, as both TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) mice were protected against kidney dysfunction, tubular damage, neutrophil and macrophage accumulation, and expression of proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines. In vitro, WT kidney TECs produced proinflammatory cytokines and chemokines and underwent apoptosis after ischemia. These effects were attenuated in TLR4(-/-) and MyD88(-/-) TECs. In addition, we demonstrated upregulation of the endogenous ligands high-mobility group box 1 (HMGB1), hyaluronan, and biglycan, providing circumstantial evidence that one or more of these ligands may be the source of TLR4 activation. To determine the relative contribution of TLR4 expression by parenchymal cells or leukocytes to kidney damage during IRI, we generated chimeric mice. TLR4(-/-) mice engrafted with WT hematopoietic cells had significantly lower serum creatinine and less tubular damage than WT mice reconstituted with TLR4(-/-) BM, suggesting that TLR4 signaling in intrinsic kidney cells plays the dominant role in mediating kidney damage.
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            The immune system and kidney disease: basic concepts and clinical implications.

            The kidneys are frequently targeted by pathogenic immune responses against renal autoantigens or by local manifestations of systemic autoimmunity. Recent studies in rodent models and humans have uncovered several underlying mechanisms that can be used to explain the previously enigmatic immunopathology of many kidney diseases. These mechanisms include kidney-specific damage-associated molecular patterns that cause sterile inflammation, the crosstalk between renal dendritic cells and T cells, the development of kidney-targeting autoantibodies and molecular mimicry with microbial pathogens. Conversely, kidney failure affects general immunity, causing intestinal barrier dysfunction, systemic inflammation and immunodeficiency that contribute to the morbidity and mortality of patients with kidney disease. In this Review, we summarize the recent findings regarding the interactions between the kidneys and the immune system.
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              Distant effects of experimental renal ischemia/reperfusion injury.

               Alan Kelly (2003)
              Acute renal failure results in significant morbidity and mortality, yet renal failure is not the usual cause of death in the clinical situation. We have previously reported systemic increases in the inflammatory mediators tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-alpha) and interleukin-1 (IL-1) after renal ischemia in the mouse. In the present study, an animal model of bilateral renal ischemia was used to test the hypothesis that cytokines released with renal ischemia have effects on other organ systems. Increased levels of immunoreactive TNF-alpha and IL-1 and intercellular adhesion molecule-1 mRNA were found in the heart after renal ischemia in the rat. This was accompanied by increases in myeloperoxidase activity, an index of tissue leukocyte infiltration, in the heart as well as the liver and lung. Functional changes in the heart 48 h after renal ischemia included increases in left ventricular end diastolic diameter, left ventricular end systolic diameter, and decreased fractional shortening by echocardiography. Evidence of apoptosis of cardiac cells was also found 48 h after an abbreviated period of renal ischemia insufficient to induce azotemia but not bilateral nephrectomy (which resulted in significant renal failure), suggesting that renal ischemia but not uremia is necessary for the apoptosis observed. It was also found that blocking the action of TNF-alpha limited cardiac apoptosis. Renal ischemia results in distant effects and the alterations observed in the heart may be important in the morbidity and mortality observed clinically.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                03 April 2020
                2020
                : 14
                : 1351-1362
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Xiamen Haicang Hospital , Xiamen 361000, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Women and Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University , Xiamen 361000, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Huiqiong Huang Department of Anesthesiology, Women and Children’s Hospital Affiliated to Xiamen University , No. 10 Zhenhai Road, Xiamen361000, People’s Republic of ChinaTel +86-13799799464 Email drhq_huang@163.com
                [*]

                These authors contributed equally to this work

                Article
                223742
                10.2147/DDDT.S223742
                7138619
                © 2020 Zheng et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 6, References: 47, Pages: 12
                Categories
                Original Research

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