The trigeminal ganglion with its three trigeminal nerve tracts consists mainly of clusters of sensory neurons with their peripheral and central processes. Most neurons are surrounded by satellite glial cells and the axons are wrapped by myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells. Trigeminal neurons express various neuropeptides, most notably, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Two types of CGRP receptors are expressed in neurons and satellite glia. A variety of other signal molecules like ATP, nitric oxide, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors are released from trigeminal ganglion neurons and signal to neighboring neurons or satellite glial cells, which can signal back to neurons with same or other mediators. This potential cross-talk of signals involves intracellular mechanisms, including gene expression, that can modulate mediators of sensory information, such as neuropeptides, receptors, and neurotrophic factors. From the ganglia cell bodies, which are outside the blood–brain barrier, the mediators are further distributed to peripheral sites and/or to the spinal trigeminal nucleus in the brainstem, where they can affect neural transmission. A major question is how the sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion differ from those in the dorsal root ganglion. Despite their functional overlap, there are distinct differences in their ontogeny, gene expression, signaling pathways, and responses to anti-migraine drugs. Consequently, drugs that modulate cross-talk in the trigeminal ganglion can modulate both peripheral and central sensitization, which may potentially be distinct from sensitization mediated in the dorsal root ganglion.