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      Cross-talk signaling in the trigeminal ganglion: role of neuropeptides and other mediators

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          Abstract

          The trigeminal ganglion with its three trigeminal nerve tracts consists mainly of clusters of sensory neurons with their peripheral and central processes. Most neurons are surrounded by satellite glial cells and the axons are wrapped by myelinating and non-myelinating Schwann cells. Trigeminal neurons express various neuropeptides, most notably, calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP), substance P, and pituitary adenylate cyclase-activating polypeptide (PACAP). Two types of CGRP receptors are expressed in neurons and satellite glia. A variety of other signal molecules like ATP, nitric oxide, cytokines, and neurotrophic factors are released from trigeminal ganglion neurons and signal to neighboring neurons or satellite glial cells, which can signal back to neurons with same or other mediators. This potential cross-talk of signals involves intracellular mechanisms, including gene expression, that can modulate mediators of sensory information, such as neuropeptides, receptors, and neurotrophic factors. From the ganglia cell bodies, which are outside the blood–brain barrier, the mediators are further distributed to peripheral sites and/or to the spinal trigeminal nucleus in the brainstem, where they can affect neural transmission. A major question is how the sensory neurons in the trigeminal ganglion differ from those in the dorsal root ganglion. Despite their functional overlap, there are distinct differences in their ontogeny, gene expression, signaling pathways, and responses to anti-migraine drugs. Consequently, drugs that modulate cross-talk in the trigeminal ganglion can modulate both peripheral and central sensitization, which may potentially be distinct from sensitization mediated in the dorsal root ganglion.

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          Most cited references 161

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          Mustard oils and cannabinoids excite sensory nerve fibres through the TRP channel ANKTM1.

          Wasabi, horseradish and mustard owe their pungency to isothiocyanate compounds. Topical application of mustard oil (allyl isothiocyanate) to the skin activates underlying sensory nerve endings, thereby producing pain, inflammation and robust hypersensitivity to thermal and mechanical stimuli. Despite their widespread use in both the kitchen and the laboratory, the molecular mechanism through which isothiocyanates mediate their effects remains unknown. Here we show that mustard oil depolarizes a subpopulation of primary sensory neurons that are also activated by capsaicin, the pungent ingredient in chilli peppers, and by Delta(9)-tetrahydrocannabinol (THC), the psychoactive component of marijuana. Both allyl isothiocyanate and THC mediate their excitatory effects by activating ANKTM1, a member of the TRP ion channel family recently implicated in the detection of noxious cold. These findings identify a cellular and molecular target for the pungent action of mustard oils and support an emerging role for TRP channels as ionotropic cannabinoid receptors.
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            RAMPs regulate the transport and ligand specificity of the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor.

            Calcitonin-gene-related peptide (CGRP) and adrenomedullin are related peptides with distinct pharmacological profiles. Here we show that a receptor with seven transmembrane domains, the calcitonin-receptor-like receptor (CRLR), can function as either a CGRP receptor or an adrenomedullin receptor, depending on which members of a new family of single-transmembrane-domain proteins, which we have called receptor-activity-modifying proteins or RAMPs, are expressed. RAMPs are required to transport CRLR to the plasma membrane. RAMP1 presents the receptor at the cell surface as a mature glycoprotein and a CGRP receptor. RAMP2-transported receptors are core-glycosylated and are adrenomedullin receptors.
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              Calcitonin gene-related peptide: physiology and pathophysiology.

              Calcitonin gene-related peptide (CGRP) is a 37-amino acid neuropeptide. Discovered 30 years ago, it is produced as a consequence of alternative RNA processing of the calcitonin gene. CGRP has two major forms (α and β). It belongs to a group of peptides that all act on an unusual receptor family. These receptors consist of calcitonin receptor-like receptor (CLR) linked to an essential receptor activity modifying protein (RAMP) that is necessary for full functionality. CGRP is a highly potent vasodilator and, partly as a consequence, possesses protective mechanisms that are important for physiological and pathological conditions involving the cardiovascular system and wound healing. CGRP is primarily released from sensory nerves and thus is implicated in pain pathways. The proven ability of CGRP antagonists to alleviate migraine has been of most interest in terms of drug development, and knowledge to date concerning this potential therapeutic area is discussed. Other areas covered, where there is less information known on CGRP, include arthritis, skin conditions, diabetes, and obesity. It is concluded that CGRP is an important peptide in mammalian biology, but it is too early at present to know if new medicines for disease treatment will emerge from our knowledge concerning this molecule.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                karl.messlinger@fau.de
                Journal
                J Neural Transm (Vienna)
                J Neural Transm (Vienna)
                Journal of Neural Transmission
                Springer Vienna (Vienna )
                0300-9564
                1435-1463
                22 February 2020
                22 February 2020
                2020
                : 127
                : 4
                : 431-444
                Affiliations
                [1 ]GRID grid.5330.5, ISNI 0000 0001 2107 3311, Institute of Physiology and Pathophysiology, , Friedrich-Alexander-University Erlangen-Nürnberg, ; Universitätsstr. 17, 91054 Erlangen, Germany
                [2 ]GRID grid.214572.7, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8294, Neuroscience Graduate Program, University of Iowa, ; Iowa City, IA 52242 USA
                [3 ]GRID grid.214572.7, ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8294, Department of Molecular Physiology and Biophysics, , University of Iowa, ; Iowa City, IA 52242 USA
                [4 ]Iowa VA Health Care System, Iowa City, IA 52246 USA
                Article
                2161
                10.1007/s00702-020-02161-7
                7148261
                32088764
                © The Author(s) 2020

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Categories
                Neurology and Preclinical Neurological Studies - Review Article
                Custom metadata
                © Springer-Verlag GmbH Austria, part of Springer Nature 2020

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