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Distribution of coat-color-associated alleles in the domestic horse population and Przewalski's horse.

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      Abstract

      Considering the hidden mode of inheritance of some coat-color-associated alleles, we investigated the presence/absence of coat-color-associated alleles in 1093 domestic horses of 55 breeds and 20 specimens of Przewalski's horse. For coat-color genotyping, allele specific PCR, pyrosequencing and Li-Cor analyses were conducted on 12 coat-color-associated alleles of five genes. Our data provide deep insight into the distribution of coat-color-associated alleles within breeds. We found that the alleles for the basic colorations (bay, black, and chestnut) are widely distributed and occur in nearly all breeds. Alleles leading to dilutions or patterns are rare in domestic breeds and were not found in Przewalski's horse. Higher frequencies of these alleles are only found in breeds that are selected for their expressed phenotypes (e.g., Kinsky horse, Lewitzer, Tinker). Nevertheless, our study produced strong evidence that molecular testing of the coat color is necessary for well-defined phenotyping to avoid unexpected colorations of offspring that can result in legal action.

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      Affiliations
      [1 ] Albrecht Daniel Thaer Institute, Humboldt University Berlin, Berlin, Germany.
      [2 ] Department of Genetics and Animal Breeding, Faculty of Animal Production, University of Khartoum, Khartoum, Sudan.
      [3 ] Department of Animal Science, Jihad-Agricultural Higher Educational Complex, Mashad, Iran.
      [4 ] Department of Evolutionary Genetics, Leibniz Institute for Zoo and Wildlife Research, Berlin, Germany. ludwig@izw-berlin.de.
      Journal
      J. Appl. Genet.
      Journal of applied genetics
      Springer Nature
      2190-3883
      1234-1983
      Nov 2016
      : 57
      : 4
      27194311
      10.1007/s13353-016-0352-7
      10.1007/s13353-016-0352-7

      SLC45A2, Pmel17, MC1R, Kit, ASIP

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