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      Growth Hormone Releasing Hormone Expression During Postnatal Development in Growth Hormone-Deficient Ames Dwarf Mice:mRNA in situ Hybridization

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          Abstract

          Several genetic mutations in mice and rats that produce lifelong growth hormone (GH) deficiency result in overexpression of GH-releasing hormone (GHRH) mRNA in hypothalamic arcuate nucleus neurons. In order to examine the development of this condition, GHRH mRNA expression was quantified in Ames dwarf (df/df) and normal (DF/?) mice at 1 (day of birth), 3, 7, 14, 21 and 60 postnatal days (d) following in situ hybridization. Total mRNA was assessed using computer-assisted densitometry after X-ray film autoradiography, and mRNA expression per neuron was quantified by counts of grains per cell after emulsion autoradiography. Total GHRH mRNA was the same in dwarf and normal mice at 1, 3 and 7d. GHRH mRNA in dwarfs increased at 14d to 240% of that in DF/? (p < 0.005); the percentage overexpression in dwarf mice remained ≧200% through 60d, although total GHRH mRNA increased in both dwarfs and normals during this period. GHRH mRNA per neuron was the same in normal and dwarf mice at 1d, then increased in dwarfs to 190% of that in normals at 3d (p < 0.05), and rose to 300% of normal levels by 7d and beyond (p < 0.005). There was no sexual dimorphism in expression by either measure in normal or dwarf mice. These results indicate that an increase in GHRH mRNA in Ames dwarf mice is first detectable at 3d, a period of approximately 7d after the failure to initiate GH production, which occurs normally at embryonic day 17.5. The onset of GHRH overexpression occurs earlier than the decline of either hypophysiotropic somatostatin or dopamine in Ames dwarf mice. This difference may be due to the stimulatory action of GHRH, as opposed to the inhibitory effects of factors examined previously.

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          Most cited references 4

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          Pituitary lineage determination by the Prophet of Pit-1 homeodomain factor defective in Ames dwarfism.

          The gene apparently responsible for a heritable form of murine pituitary-dependent dwarfism (Ames dwarf, df) has been positionally cloned, identifying a novel, tissue-specific, paired-like homeodomain transcription factor, termed Prophet of Pit-1 (Prop-1). The df phenotype results from an apparent failure of initial determination of the Pit-1 lineage required for production of growth hormone, prolactin or thyroid-stimulating hormone, resulting in dysmorphogenesis and failure to activate Pit-1 gene expression. These results imply that a cascade of tissue-specific regulators is responsible for the determination and differentiation of specific cell lineages in pituitary organogenesis.
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            Secretin receptor activity in rat gastric glands. Binding studies, cAMP generation and pharmacology

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              Immunohistochemical evidence for synaptic connections between neuropeptide Y-containing axons and periventricular somatostatin neurons in the anterior hypothalamus in rats

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                NEN
                Neuroendocrinology
                10.1159/issn.0028-3835
                Neuroendocrinology
                S. Karger AG
                0028-3835
                1423-0194
                1998
                September 1998
                18 September 1998
                : 68
                : 3
                : 201-209
                Affiliations
                a Department of Cell and Molecular Biology, Tulane University, and b Department of Anatomy, Tulane University School of Medicine, New Orleans, La., USA
                Article
                54367 Neuroendocrinology 1998;68:201–209
                10.1159/000054367
                9734005
                © 1998 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 6, Tables: 1, References: 40, Pages: 9
                Categories
                Growth Hormone Regulation

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