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      The Postoperative Analgesic Effect of Ultrasound-Guided Bilateral Transversus Abdominis Plane Combined with Rectus Sheath Blocks in Laparoscopic Hepatectomy: A Randomized Controlled Study

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          Our aim was to investigate the postoperative analgesic effect of ultrasound (US)-guided bilateral transversus abdominis plane (TAP) blocks combined with rectus sheath blocks (RSBs) in laparoscopic hepatectomy.

          Patients and Methods

          A total of 126 patients were allocated into two groups for analysis. Group 1 (n = 63) did not receive any local anesthetics. Group 2 (n = 63) received US-guided bilateral TAP blocks and RSBs using 20 mL 0.25% ropivacaine in each block. Postoperative pain scores, the dose of intraoperative remifentanil, 24 h consumption of oxycodone, adverse events such as postoperative dizziness, nausea and vomiting, and the length of postoperative hospital stay were recorded.


          In the postanesthesia care unit, patients in group 2 had significantly lower pain visual analog scale (VAS) scores at rest than those in group 1 ( P < 0.001). The VAS scores both at rest and during movement were significantly lower in group 2 than in group 1 at 2, 4 and 6 h postoperatively (all P < 0.001). There was no difference in VAS scores between the two groups at rest 24 h postoperatively ( P = 0.477). However, the VAS score during movement at 24 h in group 2 was significantly lower than that in group 1 ( P < 0.001). No significant differences in the incidence of adverse events or the dose of intraoperative remifentanil were observed between the two groups (all P > 0.05). Patients in group 2 had a significantly lower 24 h consumption of oxycodone than patients in group 1 ( P < 0.001). The mean length of postoperative hospital stay of group 2 was shorter than that of group 1 ( P = 0.032).


          US-guided bilateral TAP blocks combined with RSBs provide effective postoperative analgesia for laparoscopic hepatectomy, and they could shorten the postoperative hospital stay without increasing the incidence of adverse events from opioids.

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          Most cited references 17

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          Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid or low rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN trial): short-term outcomes of an open-label randomised controlled trial.

          The safety and short-term efficacy of laparoscopic surgery for rectal cancer after preoperative chemoradiotherapy has not been demonstrated. The aim of the randomised Comparison of Open versus laparoscopic surgery for mid and low REctal cancer After Neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy (COREAN) trial was to compare open surgery with laparoscopic surgery for mid or low rectal cancer after neoadjuvant chemoradiotherapy. Between April 4, 2006, and Aug 26, 2009, patients with cT3N0-2 mid or low rectal cancer without distant metastasis after preoperative chemoradiotherapy were enrolled at three tertiary-referral hospitals. Patients were randomised 1:1 to receive either open surgery (n=170) or laparoscopic surgery (n=170), stratified according to sex and preoperative chemotherapy regimen. Short-term outcomes assessed were involvement of the circumferential resection margin, macroscopic quality of the total mesorectal excision specimen, number of harvested lymph nodes, recovery of bowel function, perioperative morbidity, postoperative pain, and quality of life. Analyses were based on the intention-to-treat population. Patients continue to be followed up for the primary outcome (3-year disease-free survival). This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, number NCT00470951. Two patients (1.2%) in the laparoscopic group were converted to open surgery, but were included in the laparoscopic group for analyses. Estimated blood loss was less in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (median 217.5 mL [150.0-400.0] in the open group vs 200.0 mL [100.0-300.0] in the laparoscopic group, p=0.006), although surgery time was longer in the laparoscopic group (mean 244.9 min [SD 75.4] vs 197.0 min [62.9], p<0.0001). Involvement of the circumferential resection margin, macroscopic quality of the total mesorectal excision specimen, number of harvested lymph nodes, and perioperative morbidity did not differ between the two groups. The laparoscopic surgery group showed earlier recovery of bowel function than the open surgery group (time to pass first flatus, median 38.5 h [23.0-53.0] vs 60.0 h [43.0-73.0], p<0.0001; time to resume a normal diet, 85.0 h [66.0-95.0] vs 93.0 h [86.0-121.0], p<0.0001; time to first defecation, 96.5 h [70.0-125.0] vs 123 h [94.0-156.0], p<0.0001). The total amount of morphine used was less in the laparoscopic group than in the open group (median 107.2 mg [80.0-150.0] vs 156.9 mg [117.0-185.2], p<0.0001). 3 months after proctectomy or ileostomy takedown, the laparoscopic group showed better physical functioning score than the open group (0.501 [n=122] vs -4.970 [n=128], p=0.0073), less fatigue (-5.659 [n=122] vs 0.098 [n=129], p=0.0206), and fewer micturition (-2.583 [n=122] vs 4.725 [n=129], p=0.0002), gastrointestinal (-0.400 [n=122] vs 4.331 [n=129], p=0.0102), and defecation problems (0.535 [n=103] vs 5.327 [n=99], p=0.0184) in repeated measures analysis of covariance, adjusted for baseline values. Laparoscopic surgery after preoperative chemoradiotherapy for mid or low rectal cancer is safe and has short-term benefits compared with open surgery; the quality of oncological resection was equivalent. 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Ultrasound-guided transversus abdominis plane block: description of a new technique and comparison with conventional systemic analgesia during laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

            The transversus abdominis plane (TAP) block is usually performed by landmark-based methods. This prospective, randomized, and double-blinded study was designed to describe a method of ultrasound-guided TAP block and to evaluate the intra- and postoperative analgesic efficacy in patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under general anaesthesia with or without TAP block. Forty-two patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy were randomized to receive standard general anaesthetic either with (Group A, n=21) or without TAP block (Group B, n=21). Ultrasound-guided bilateral TAP block was performed with a high frequent linear ultrasound probe and an in-plane needle guidance technique with 15 ml bupivacaine 5 mg ml(-1) on each side. Intraoperative use of sufentanil and postoperative demand of morphine using a patient-controlled analgesia device were recorded. Ultrasonographic visualization of the relevant anatomy, detection of the shaft and tip of the needle, and the spread of local anaesthetic were possible in all cases where a TAP block was performed. Patients in Group A received significantly less [corrected] intraoperative sufentanil and postoperative morphine compared with those in Group B [mean (SD) 8.6 (3.5) vs 23.0 (4.8) microg, P<0.01, and 10.5 (7.7) vs 22.8 (4.3) mg, P<0.05]. Ultrasonographic guidance enables exact placement of the local anaesthetic for TAP blocks. In patients undergoing laparoscopic cholecystectomy under standard general anaesthetic, ultrasound-guided TAP block substantially reduced the perioperative opioid consumption.
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              Characteristics and prediction of early pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy.

              Small-scale studies have suggested a large inter-individual variation in early postoperative pain after laparoscopic cholecystectomy, emphasizing the need for improved analgesic treatment and valid predictors. We investigated prospectively the association between a preoperative nociceptive stimulus by ice water (cold pressor test), neuroticism, dyspepsia, patient history of biliary symptoms, intraoperative factors, and demographic information in 150 consecutive patients undergoing uncomplicated laparoscopic cholecystectomy for their influence on early postoperative pain. During the first postoperative week patients registered overall pain, incisional, visceral, and shoulder pain on a visual analogue scale and verbal rating scale, and daily analgesic requirements were noted. Throughout the first postoperative week overall pain showed a pronounced inter-individual variability. Incisional pain dominated in incidence and intensity compared with visceral pain, which in turn dominated over shoulder pain. In a multivariate analysis model, preoperative neuroticism, sensitivity to cold pressor-induced pain, and age were identified as independent risk factors for early postoperative pain. Our results suggest that future analgesic studies after laparoscopic cholecystectomy should focus on reduction of incisional pain.

                Author and article information

                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Ther Clin Risk Manag
                Therapeutics and Clinical Risk Management
                18 September 2020
                : 16
                : 881-888
                [1 ]Collaborative Innovation Center for Cancer Medicine, State Key Laboratory of Oncology in South China, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                [2 ]Department of Anesthesiology, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                [3 ]Department of Liver Surgery, Sun Yat-Sen University Cancer Center , Guangzhou, Guangdong, People’s Republic of China
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Zhongguo Zhou; Renchun Lai Email zhouzhg@sysucc.org.cn; lairench@sysucc.org.cn

                These authors contributed equally to this work.

                © 2020 Lu et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 3, Tables: 9, References: 18, Pages: 8
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                Original Research


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