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A Novel Homozygous LIPA Mutation in a Korean Child with Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency

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      Abstract

      Patients with lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) deficiency and glycogen storage disease (GSD) demonstrated hepatomegaly and dyslipidemia. In our case, a 6-year-old boy presented with hepatosplenomegaly. At 3 years of age, GSD had been diagnosed by liver biopsy at another hospital. He showed elevated serum liver enzymes and dyslipidemia. Liver biopsy revealed diffuse microvesicular fatty changes in hepatocytes, septal fibrosis and foamy macrophages. Ultrastructural examination demonstrated numerous lysosomes that contained lipid material and intracytoplasmic cholesterol clefts. A dried blood spot test revealed markedly decreased activity of LAL. LIPA gene sequencing identified the presence of a novel homozygous mutation (p.Thr177Ile). The patient's elevated liver enzymes and dyslipidemia improved with enzyme replacement therapy. This is the first report of a Korean child with LAL deficiency, and our findings suggest that this condition should be considered in the differential diagnosis of children with hepatosplenomegaly and dyslipidemia.

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      Most cited references 12

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      Cholesteryl ester storage disease: review of the findings in 135 reported patients with an underdiagnosed disease.

      Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) is caused by deficient lysosomal acid lipase (LAL) activity, predominantly resulting in cholesteryl ester (CE) accumulation, particularly in the liver, spleen, and macrophages throughout the body. The disease is characterized by microvesicular steatosis leading to liver failure, accelerated atherosclerosis and premature demise. Although CESD is rare, it is likely that many patients are unrecognized or misdiagnosed. Here, the findings in 135 CESD patients described in the literature are reviewed. Diagnoses were based on liver biopsies, LAL deficiency and/or LAL gene (LIPA) mutations. Hepatomegaly was present in 99.3% of patients; 74% also had splenomegaly. When reported, most patients had elevated serum total cholesterol, LDL-cholesterol, triglycerides, and transaminases (AST, ALT, or both), while HDL-cholesterol was decreased. All 112 liver biopsied patients had the characteristic pathology, which is progressive, and includes microvesicular steatosis, which leads to fibrosis, micronodular cirrhosis, and ultimately to liver failure. Pathognomonic birefringent CE crystals or their remnant clefts were observed in hepatic cells. Extrahepatic manifestations included portal hypertension, esophageal varices, and accelerated atherosclerosis. Liver failure in 17 reported patients resulted in liver transplantation and/or death. Genotyping identified 31 LIPA mutations in 55 patients; 61% of mutations were the common exon 8 splice-junction mutation (E8SJM(-1G>A)), for which 18 patients were homozygous. Genotype/phenotype correlations were limited; however, E8SJM(-1G>A) homozygotes typically had early-onset, slowly progressive disease. Supportive treatment included cholestyramine, statins, and, ultimately, liver transplantation. Recombinant LAL replacement was shown to be effective in animal models, and recently, a phase I/II clinical trial demonstrated its safety and indicated its potential metabolic efficacy. Copyright © 2013 European Association for the Study of the Liver. Published by Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
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        A Phase 3 Trial of Sebelipase Alfa in Lysosomal Acid Lipase Deficiency.

        Lysosomal acid lipase is an essential lipid-metabolizing enzyme that breaks down endocytosed lipid particles and regulates lipid metabolism. We conducted a phase 3 trial of enzyme-replacement therapy in children and adults with lysosomal acid lipase deficiency, an underappreciated cause of cirrhosis and severe dyslipidemia.
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          Frequency of the cholesteryl ester storage disease common LIPA E8SJM mutation (c.894G>A) in various racial and ethnic groups.

          Cholesteryl ester storage disease (CESD) and Wolman disease are autosomal recessive later-onset and severe infantile disorders, respectively, which result from the deficient activity of lysosomal acid lipase (LAL). LAL is encoded by LIPA (10q23.31) and the most common mutation associated with CESD is an exon 8 splice junction mutation (c.894G>A; E8SJM), which expresses only ∼3%-5% of normally spliced LAL. However, the frequency of c.894G>A is unknown in most populations. To estimate the prevalence of CESD in different populations, the frequencies of the c.894G>A mutation were determined in 10,000 LIPA alleles from healthy African-American, Asian, Caucasian, Hispanic, and Ashkenazi Jewish individuals from the greater New York metropolitan area and 6,578 LIPA alleles from African-American, Caucasian, and Hispanic subjects enrolled in the Dallas Heart Study. The combined c.894G>A allele frequencies from the two cohorts ranged from 0.0005 (Asian) to 0.0017 (Caucasian and Hispanic), which translated to carrier frequencies of 1 in 1,000 to ∼1 in 300, respectively. No African-American heterozygotes were detected. Additionally, by surveying the available literature, c.894G>A was estimated to account for 60% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 51%-69%) of reported mutations among multiethnic CESD patients. Using this estimate, the predicted prevalence of CESD in the Caucasian and Hispanic populations is ∼0.8 per 100,000 (∼1 in 130,000; 95% CI: ∼1 in 90,000 to 1 in 170,000). These data indicate that CESD may be underdiagnosed in the general Caucasian and Hispanic populations, which is important since clinical trials of enzyme replacement therapy for LAL deficiency are currently being developed. Moreover, future studies on CESD prevalence in African and Asian populations may require full-gene LIPA sequencing to determine heterozygote frequencies, since c.894G>A is not common in these racial groups. Copyright © 2013 American Association for the Study of Liver Diseases.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
            [* ]Department of Pathology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
            []Department of Radiology, Seoul National University College of Medicine, Seoul, Korea.
            Author notes
            Corresponding author: Jae Sung Ko, Department of Pediatrics, Seoul National University Hospital, 101 Daehak-ro, Jongno-gu, Seoul 03080, Korea. Tel: +82-2-2072-2197, Fax: +82-2-743-3455, kojs@ 123456snu.ac.kr
            Journal
            Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr
            Pediatr Gastroenterol Hepatol Nutr
            PGHN
            Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology & Nutrition
            The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition
            2234-8646
            2234-8840
            December 2017
            22 December 2017
            : 20
            : 4
            : 263-267
            5750382 10.5223/pghn.2017.20.4.263
            Copyright © 2017 by The Korean Society of Pediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology and Nutrition

            This is an open-access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/) which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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