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      Evaluating implementation and impact of a provincial quality improvement collaborative for the management of chronic diseases in primary care: the COMPAS+ study protocol


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          Chronic conditions such as diabetes and chronic obstructive pulmonary disease (COPD) are common and burdensome diseases primarily managed in primary care. Yet, evidence points to suboptimal quality of care for these conditions in primary care settings. Quality improvement collaboratives (QICs) are organized, multifaceted interventions that can be effective in improving chronic disease care processes and outcomes. In Quebec, Canada, the Institut national d’excellence en santé et en services sociaux (INESSS) has developed a large-scale QIC province-wide program called COMPAS+ that aims to improve the prevention and management of chronic diseases in primary care. This paper describes the protocol for our study, which aims to evaluate implementation and impact of COMPAS+ QICs on the prevention and management of targeted chronic diseases like diabetes and COPD.


          This is a mixed-methods, integrated knowledge translation study. The quantitative component involves a controlled interrupted time series involving nine large integrated health centres in the province. Study sites will receive one of two interventions: the multifaceted COMPAS+ intervention (experimental condition) or a feedback only intervention (control condition). For the qualitative component, a multiple case study approach will be used to achieve an in-depth understanding of individual, team, organizational and contextual factors influencing implementation and effectiveness of the COMPAS+ QICs.


          COMPAS+ is a QI program that is unique in Canada due to its integration within the governance of the Quebec healthcare system and its capacity to reach many primary care providers and people living with chronic diseases across the province. We anticipate that this study will address several important gaps in knowledge related to large-scale QIC projects and generate strong and useful evidence (e.g., on leadership, organizational capacity, patient involvement, and implementation) having the potential to influence the design and optimisation of future QICs in Canada and internationally.

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          Most cited references27

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          Effectiveness of quality improvement strategies on the management of diabetes: a systematic review and meta-analysis.

          The effectiveness of quality improvement (QI) strategies on diabetes care remains unclear. We aimed to assess the effects of QI strategies on glycated haemoglobin (HbA(1c)), vascular risk management, microvascular complication monitoring, and smoking cessation in patients with diabetes. We identified studies through Medline, the Cochrane Effective Practice and Organisation of Care database (from inception to July 2010), and references of included randomised clinical trials. We included trials assessing 11 predefined QI strategies or financial incentives targeting health systems, health-care professionals, or patients to improve management of adult outpatients with diabetes. Two reviewers independently abstracted data and appraised risk of bias. We reviewed 48 cluster randomised controlled trials, including 2538 clusters and 84,865 patients, and 94 patient randomised controlled trials, including 38,664 patients. In random effects meta-analysis, the QI strategies reduced HbA(1c) by a mean difference of 0·37% (95% CI 0·28-0·45; 120 trials), LDL cholesterol by 0·10 mmol/L (0·05-0.14; 47 trials), systolic blood pressure by 3·13 mm Hg (2·19-4·06, 65 trials), and diastolic blood pressure by 1·55 mm Hg (0·95-2·15, 61 trials) versus usual care. We noted larger effects when baseline concentrations were greater than 8·0% for HbA(1c), 2·59 mmol/L for LDL cholesterol, and 80 mm Hg for diastolic and 140 mm Hg for systolic blood pressure. The effectiveness of QI strategies varied depending on baseline HbA(1c) control. QI strategies increased the likelihood that patients received aspirin (11 trials; relative risk [RR] 1·33, 95% CI 1·21-1·45), antihypertensive drugs (ten trials; RR 1·17, 1·01-1·37), and screening for retinopathy (23 trials; RR 1·22, 1·13-1·32), renal function (14 trials; RR 128, 1·13-1·44), and foot abnormalities (22 trials; RR 1·27, 1·16-1·39). However, statin use (ten trials; RR 1·12, 0·99-1·28), hypertension control (18 trials; RR 1·01, 0·96-1·07), and smoking cessation (13 trials; RR 1·13, 0·99-1·29) were not significantly increased. Many trials of QI strategies showed improvements in diabetes care. Interventions targeting the system of chronic disease management along with patient-mediated QI strategies should be an important component of interventions aimed at improving diabetes management. Interventions solely targeting health-care professionals seem to be beneficial only if baseline HbA(1c) control is poor. Ontario Ministry of Health and Long-term Care and the Alberta Heritage Foundation for Medical Research (now Alberta Innovates--Health Solutions). Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
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            Knowledge sharing in context: the influence of organizational commitment, communication climate and CMC use on knowledge sharing

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              Primary health care in Canada: systems in motion.

              During the 1980s and 1990s, innovations in the organization, funding, and delivery of primary health care in Canada were at the periphery of the system rather than at its core. In the early 2000s, a new policy environment emerged. This policy analysis examines primary health care reform efforts in Canada during the last decade, drawing on descriptive information from published and gray literature and from a series of semistructured interviews with informed observers of primary health care in Canada. Primary health care in Canada has entered a period of potentially transformative change. Key initiatives include support for interprofessional primary health care teams, group practices and networks, patient enrollment with a primary care provider, financial incentives and blended-payment schemes, development of primary health care governance mechanisms, expansion of the primary health care provider pool, implementation of electronic medical records, and quality improvement training and support. Canada's experience suggests that primary health care transformation can be achieved voluntarily in a pluralistic system of private health care delivery, given strong government and professional leadership working in concert. © 2011 Milbank Memorial Fund. Published by Wiley Periodicals Inc.

                Author and article information

                BMC Fam Pract
                BMC Fam Pract
                BMC Family Practice
                BioMed Central (London )
                7 January 2020
                7 January 2020
                : 21
                : 3
                [1 ]School of Rehabilitation, Faculty of Medicine, Université de Montréal and Centre de recherche du CIUSSS de l’Est-de-l’Île-de-Montréal, Montreal, Quebec, Canada
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0000 9064 6198, GRID grid.86715.3d, Faculty of Medicine and Health Sciences, , Université de Sherbrooke, ; Sherbrooke, Canada
                [3 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8390, GRID grid.23856.3a, Family Medicine and Emergency Medicine, , Université Laval, ; Quebec, Canada
                [4 ]Public Health School, Unversité de Montréal, Montreal, Canada
                [5 ]ISNI 0000 0004 0435 2310, GRID grid.493304.9, Institut national d’excellence en santé et en services sociaux, ; Montreal, Canada
                [6 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2292 3357, GRID grid.14848.31, Faculty of Nursing, , Université de Montréal, ; Montreal, Canada
                [7 ]ISNI 0000 0000 8929 2775, GRID grid.434819.3, Institut national de santé publique du Québec, ; Quebec, Canada
                [8 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2292 3357, GRID grid.14848.31, Faculty of Medicine, , Université de Montréal, ; Montreal, Canada
                [9 ]ISNI 0000 0004 1936 8649, GRID grid.14709.3b, Faculty of Medicine, , McGill University, ; Montreal, Canada
                Author information
                © The Author(s). 2020

                Open AccessThis article is distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated.

                : 9 September 2019
                : 18 December 2019
                Funded by: FundRef http://dx.doi.org/10.13039/501100000037, Institute of Health Services and Policy Research;
                Award ID: 159486
                Award Recipient :
                Study Protocol
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2020

                quality improvement,primary care,chronic disease management,knowledge translation,diabetes,chronic pulmonary obstructive disease


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