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KEGG for integration and interpretation of large-scale molecular data sets

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      Abstract

      Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes (KEGG, http://www.genome.jp/kegg/ or http://www.kegg.jp/) is a database resource that integrates genomic, chemical and systemic functional information. In particular, gene catalogs from completely sequenced genomes are linked to higher-level systemic functions of the cell, the organism and the ecosystem. Major efforts have been undertaken to manually create a knowledge base for such systemic functions by capturing and organizing experimental knowledge in computable forms; namely, in the forms of KEGG pathway maps, BRITE functional hierarchies and KEGG modules. Continuous efforts have also been made to develop and improve the cross-species annotation procedure for linking genomes to the molecular networks through the KEGG Orthology system. Here we report KEGG Mapper, a collection of tools for KEGG PATHWAY, BRITE and MODULE mapping, enabling integration and interpretation of large-scale data sets. We also report a variant of the KEGG mapping procedure to extend the knowledge base, where different types of data and knowledge, such as disease genes and drug targets, are integrated as part of the KEGG molecular networks. Finally, we describe recent enhancements to the KEGG content, especially the incorporation of disease and drug information used in practice and in society, to support translational bioinformatics.

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      KEGG for linking genomes to life and the environment

      KEGG (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/) is a database of biological systems that integrates genomic, chemical and systemic functional information. KEGG provides a reference knowledge base for linking genomes to life through the process of PATHWAY mapping, which is to map, for example, a genomic or transcriptomic content of genes to KEGG reference pathways to infer systemic behaviors of the cell or the organism. In addition, KEGG provides a reference knowledge base for linking genomes to the environment, such as for the analysis of drug-target relationships, through the process of BRITE mapping. KEGG BRITE is an ontology database representing functional hierarchies of various biological objects, including molecules, cells, organisms, diseases and drugs, as well as relationships among them. KEGG PATHWAY is now supplemented with a new global map of metabolic pathways, which is essentially a combined map of about 120 existing pathway maps. In addition, smaller pathway modules are defined and stored in KEGG MODULE that also contains other functional units and complexes. The KEGG resource is being expanded to suit the needs for practical applications. KEGG DRUG contains all approved drugs in the US and Japan, and KEGG DISEASE is a new database linking disease genes, pathways, drugs and diagnostic markers.
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        From genomics to chemical genomics: new developments in KEGG

        The increasing amount of genomic and molecular information is the basis for understanding higher-order biological systems, such as the cell and the organism, and their interactions with the environment, as well as for medical, industrial and other practical applications. The KEGG resource () provides a reference knowledge base for linking genomes to biological systems, categorized as building blocks in the genomic space (KEGG GENES) and the chemical space (KEGG LIGAND), and wiring diagrams of interaction networks and reaction networks (KEGG PATHWAY). A fourth component, KEGG BRITE, has been formally added to the KEGG suite of databases. This reflects our attempt to computerize functional interpretations as part of the pathway reconstruction process based on the hierarchically structured knowledge about the genomic, chemical and network spaces. In accordance with the new chemical genomics initiatives, the scope of KEGG LIGAND has been significantly expanded to cover both endogenous and exogenous molecules. Specifically, RPAIR contains curated chemical structure transformation patterns extracted from known enzymatic reactions, which would enable analysis of genome-environment interactions, such as the prediction of new reactions and new enzyme genes that would degrade new environmental compounds. Additionally, drug information is now stored separately and linked to new KEGG DRUG structure maps.
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          KEGG for representation and analysis of molecular networks involving diseases and drugs

          Most human diseases are complex multi-factorial diseases resulting from the combination of various genetic and environmental factors. In the KEGG database resource (http://www.genome.jp/kegg/), diseases are viewed as perturbed states of the molecular system, and drugs as perturbants to the molecular system. Disease information is computerized in two forms: pathway maps and gene/molecule lists. The KEGG PATHWAY database contains pathway maps for the molecular systems in both normal and perturbed states. In the KEGG DISEASE database, each disease is represented by a list of known disease genes, any known environmental factors at the molecular level, diagnostic markers and therapeutic drugs, which may reflect the underlying molecular system. The KEGG DRUG database contains chemical structures and/or chemical components of all drugs in Japan, including crude drugs and TCM (Traditional Chinese Medicine) formulas, and drugs in the USA and Europe. This database also captures knowledge about two types of molecular networks: the interaction network with target molecules, metabolizing enzymes, other drugs, etc. and the chemical structure transformation network in the history of drug development. The new disease/drug information resource named KEGG MEDICUS can be used as a reference knowledge base for computational analysis of molecular networks, especially, by integrating large-scale experimental datasets.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            1Bioinformatics Center, Institute for Chemical Research, Kyoto University, Uji, Kyoto 611-0011, 2Human Genome Center, Institute of Medical Science, University of Tokyo, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-8639 and 3Life Science Solutions Department, Fujitsu Kyushu Systems Ltd., Sawara-ku, Fukuoka 814-8589, Japan
            Author notes
            *To whom correspondence should be addressed. Tel: +81 774 38 3270; Fax: +81 774 38 3269; Email: kanehisa@ 123456kuicr.kyoto-u.ac.jp
            Journal
            Nucleic Acids Res
            nar
            nar
            Nucleic Acids Research
            Oxford University Press
            0305-1048
            1362-4962
            January 2012
            January 2012
            10 November 2011
            10 November 2011
            : 40
            : D1 , Database issue
            : D109-D114
            3245020
            22080510
            10.1093/nar/gkr988
            gkr988
            © The Author(s) 2011. Published by Oxford University Press.

            This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0), which permits unrestricted non-commercial use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original work is properly cited.

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            Pages: 6
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            Genetics

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