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      Multifactorial Determination of Hypertensive Nephroangiosclerosis

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          Abstract

          Essential hypertension causes renal injury. Hypertensive nephroangiosclerosis (HN) or hypertensive nephropathy are terms most commonly used to describe this renal pathology. Although specific histological lesions occurring in affected kidneys are well known, pathogenesis of hypertension-related renal scarring is not completely understood. Evidence exists to support the theory that other factors such as aging, black race or smoking, beside blood pressure, contribute to the development and progression of HN. Metabolic disturbances, cocaine and nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug abuse, ochratoxin A exposure, dietary salt intake, heavy metal toxicity, hantavirus infection and perinatal programming are also considered risk factors. Renal susceptibility genes may determine whether hypertension-induced progressive renal damage occurs and how severe it is. Determination of all risk factors may identify patients at high risk of renal failure and help tailor an appropriate management. In the present paper, the knowledge available on this clinically important objective is discussed.

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          Most cited references 38

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          Blood pressure and end-stage renal disease in men.

          End-stage renal disease in the United States creates a large burden for both individuals and society as a whole. Efforts to prevent the condition require an understanding of modifiable risk factors. We assessed the development of end-stage renal disease through 1990 in 332,544 men, 35 to 57 years of age, who were screened between 1973 and 1975 for entry into the Multiple Risk Factor Intervention Trial (MRFIT). We used data from the national registry for treated end-stage renal disease of the Health Care Financing Administration and from records on death from renal disease from the National Death Index and the Social Security Administration. During an average of 16 years of follow-up, 814 subjects either died of end-stage renal disease or were treated for that condition (15.6 cases per 100,000 person-years of observation). A strong, graded relation between both systolic and diastolic blood pressure and end-stage renal disease was identified, independent of associations between the disease and age, race, income, use of medication for diabetes mellitus, history of myocardial infarction, serum cholesterol concentration, and cigarette smoking. As compared with men with an optimal level of blood pressure (systolic pressure or = 210 mm Hg or diastolic pressure > or = 120 mm Hg) was 22.1 (P < 0.001). These relations were not due to end-stage renal disease that occurred soon after screening and, in the 12,866 screened men who entered the MRFIT study, were not changed by taking into account the base-line serum creatinine concentration and urinary protein excretion. The estimated risk of end-stage renal disease associated with elevations of systolic pressure was greater than that linked with elevations of diastolic pressure when both variables were considered together. Elevations of blood pressure are a strong independent risk factor for end-stage renal disease; interventions to prevent the disease need to emphasize the prevention and control of both high-normal and high blood pressure.
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            Passive smoking and impaired endothelium-dependent arterial dilatation in healthy young adults.

            Passive smoking has been linked to an increased risk of dying from atherosclerotic heart disease. Since endothelial dysfunction is an early feature of atherogenesis and occurs in young adults who actively smoke cigarettes, we hypothesized that passive smoking might also be associated with endothelial damage in healthy young-adult nonsmokers. We studied 78 healthy subjects (39 men and 39 women) 15 to 30 years of age (mean +/- SD, 22 +/- 4): 26 control subjects who had never smoked or had regular exposure to environmental tobacco smoke, 26 who had never smoked but had been exposed to environmental tobacco smoke for at least one hour daily for three or more years, and 26 active smokers. Using ultrasonography, we measured the brachial-artery diameter under base-line conditions, during reactive hyperemia (with flow increase causing endothelium-dependent dilatation), and after sublingual administration of nitroglycerin (an endothelium-independent dilator). Flow-mediated dilatation was observed in all control subjects (8.2 +/- 3.1 percent; range, 2.1 to 16.7) but was significantly impaired in the passive smokers (3.1 +/- 2.7 percent; range, 0 to 9; P < 0.001 for the comparison with the controls) and in the active smokers (4.4 +/- 3.1 percent; range, 0 to 10; P < 0.001 for the comparison with the controls; P = 0.48 for the comparison with the passive smokers). In the passive smokers, there was an inverse relation between the intensity of exposure to tobacco smoke and flow-mediated dilatation (r = -0.67, P < 0.001). In contrast, dilatation induced by nitroglycerin was similar in all groups. Passive smoking is associated with dose-related impairment of endothelium-dependent dilatation in healthy young adults, suggesting early arterial damage.
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              Haemodynamic shear stress activates a K+ current in vascular endothelial cells.

              The endothelial lining of blood vessels is subjected to a wide range of haemodynamically-generated shear-stress forces throughout the vascular system. In vivo and in vitro, endothelial cells change their morphology and biochemistry in response to shear stress in a force- and time-dependent way, or when a critical threshold is exceeded. The initial stimulus-response coupling mechanisms have not been identified, however. Recently, Lansman et al. described stretch-activated ion channels in endothelial cells and suggested that they could be involved in the response to mechanical forces generated by blood flow. The channels were relatively nonselective and were opened by membrane stretching induced by suction. Here we report whole-cell patch-clamp recordings of single arterial endothelial cells exposed to controlled levels of laminar shear stress in capillary flow tubes. A K+ selective, shear-stress-activated ionic current (designated Ik.s) was identified which is unlike previously described stretch-activated currents. Ik.s varies in magnitude and duration as a function of shear stress (half-maximal effect at 0.70 dyn cm-2), desensitizes slowly and recovers rapidly and fully on cessation of flow. Ik.s activity represents the earliest and fastest stimulus-response coupling of haemodynamic forces to endothelial cells yet found. We suggest that localized flow-activated hyperpolarization of endothelium involving Ik.s may participate in the regulation of vascular tone.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                KBR
                Kidney Blood Press Res
                10.1159/issn.1420-4096
                Kidney and Blood Pressure Research
                S. Karger AG
                1420-4096
                1423-0143
                2002
                2002
                26 February 2003
                : 25
                : 6
                : 341-353
                Affiliations
                aDepartment of Internal Medicine, Nephrology and Transplantology, Medical University, Gdansk, Poland; bDivision of Nephrology and Dialysis, Department of Medicine III, University of Vienna, Vienna, Austria
                Article
                68698 Kidney Blood Press Res 2002;25:341–353
                10.1159/000068698
                12590197
                © 2002 S. Karger AG, Basel

                Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of this publication may be translated into other languages, reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, electronic or mechanical, including photocopying, recording, microcopying, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without permission in writing from the publisher. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 1, Tables: 2, References: 184, Pages: 13
                Product
                Self URI (application/pdf): https://www.karger.com/Article/Pdf/68698
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