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      Nationwide outbreak of Salmonella Montevideo infections associated with contaminated imported black and red pepper: warehouse membership cards provide critical clues to identify the source

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          SUMMARY

          In November 2009, we initiated a multistate investigation of Salmonella Montevideo infections with pulsed-field gel electrophoresis pattern JIXX01.0011. We identified 272 cases in 44 states with illness onset dates ranging from 1 July 2009 to 14 April 2010. To help generate hypotheses, warehouse store membership card information was collected to identify products consumed by cases. These records identified 19 ill persons who purchased company A salami products before onset of illness. A case-control study was conducted. Ready-to-eat salami consumption was significantly associated with illness (matched odds ratio 8·5, 95% confidence interval 2·1–75·9). The outbreak strain was isolated from company A salami products from an environmental sample from one manufacturing plant, and sealed containers of black and red pepper at the facility. This outbreak illustrates the importance of using membership card information to assist in identifying suspect vehicles, the potential for spices to contaminate ready-to-eat products, and preventing raw ingredient contamination of these products.

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          Most cited references 12

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          Standardization of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis protocols for the subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella, and Shigella for PulseNet.

          Standardized rapid pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE) protocols for the subtyping of Escherichia coli O157:H7, Salmonella serotypes, and Shigella species are described. These protocols are used by laboratories in PulseNet, a network of state and local health departments, and other public health laboratories that perform real-time PFGE subtyping of these bacterial foodborne pathogens for surveillance and outbreak investigations. Development and standardization of these protocols consisted of a thorough optimization of reagents and reaction conditions to ensure that the protocols yielded consistent results and high-quality PFGE pattern data in all the PulseNet participating laboratories. These rapid PFGE protocols are based on the original 3-4-day standardized procedure developed at Centers for Disease Control and Prevention that was validated in 1996 and 1997 by eight independent laboratories. By using these rapid standardized PFGE protocols, PulseNet laboratories are able to subtype foodborne pathogens in approximately 24 h, allowing for the early detection of foodborne disease case clusters and often aiding in the identification of the source responsible for the infections.
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            Pneumonia hospitalizations among young children before and after introduction of pneumococcal conjugate vaccine--United States, 1997-2006.

              (2009)
            Streptococcus pneumoniae is the leading bacterial cause of community-acquired pneumonia hospitalizations and an important cause of bacteremia and meningitis, especially among young children and older adults. A 7-valent pneumococcal conjugate vaccine (PCV7) was licensed and the Advisory Committee on Immunization Practices formulated recommendations for its use in infants and children in February 2000. Vaccination coverage rapidly increased during the second half of 2000, in part through funding by CDC's Vaccines for Children program. Subsequently, active population- and laboratory-based surveillance demonstrated substantial reductions in invasive pneumococcal disease (IPD) among children and adults. In addition, decreases in hospitalizations and ambulatory-care visits for all-cause pneumonia also were reported. To gauge whether the effects of PCV7 on reducing pneumonia continue, CDC is monitoring pneumonia hospitalizations by using data from the Nationwide Inpatient Sample. This report provides an update for 2005 and 2006, the most recent years for which information is available. In 2005 and 2006, the incidence rates for all-cause pneumonia hospitalizations among children aged <2 years were 9.1 per 1,000 and 8.1 per 1,000, respectively. In 2006, the rate for all-cause pneumonia among children aged <2 years was approximately 35% lower than during 1997--1999. Most of this decrease occurred soon after the vaccine was licensed in 2000, and the rates have remained relatively stable since then. The rate for all-cause pneumonia among children aged 2--4 years did not change after PCV7 licensure and has remained stable. Continued monitoring of pneumonia-related hospitalizations among children is needed to track the effects of pneumococcal immunization programs.
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              Identification of a salmonellosis outbreak by means of molecular sequencing.

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Epidemiol Infect
                Epidemiol. Infect
                HYG
                Epidemiology and Infection
                Cambridge University Press (Cambridge, UK )
                0950-2688
                1469-4409
                June 2013
                30 August 2012
                : 141
                : 6
                : 1244-1252
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Epidemic Intelligence Service assigned to the Division of Foodborne, Waterborne and Environmental Diseases, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention , Atlanta, GA, USA
                [2 ]Rhode Island Department of Health, Providence, RI, USA
                [3 ]Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, Atlanta, GA, USA
                [4 ]Washington State Department of Health, Olympia, WA, USA
                [5 ]Illinois Department of Public Health, Springfield, IL, USA
                [6 ]Iowa Department of Health, De Moines, IA, USA
                [7 ]Food Safety and Inspection Service, US Department of Agriculture, Atlanta, GA, USA
                [8 ]Food and Drug Administration, Rockville, MD, USA
                Author notes
                [* ]Author for correspondence: Dr L. Gieraltowski, 1600 Clifton Road NE, MS A38, Atlanta, GA 30329, USA. (Email: lax2@ 123456cdc.gov )
                Article
                S0950268812001859 00185
                10.1017/S0950268812001859
                3640547
                23200262
                a76ad7f7-7cf2-402f-80a5-b858b0742e19
                © Cambridge University Press 2012

                The online version of this article is published within an Open Access environment subject to the conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-ShareAlike licence < http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc-sa/2.5/>. The written permission of Cambridge University Press must be obtained for commercial re-use.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 1, References: 25, Pages: 9
                Product
                Categories
                Original Papers
                Gastrointestinal

                Public health

                enteric bacteria, epidemiology, outbreaks, salmonella

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