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      Trajectories of the current situation and characteristics of workplace violence among nurses: a nine-year follow-up study

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          Abstract

          Background

          Workplace violence (WPV) among nurses has become an increasingly serious public health issue worldwide. Investigating the status quo and characteristics of WPV among nurses in different time periods can help hospital managers understand the current status of WPV and its trends over time. This study aimed to understand the current situation of WPV among nurses in Suzhou general hospitals from 2010 to 2019 and analyze changes over time.

          Methods

          A cross-sectional study was conducted to investigate 942, 2,110 and 2,566 nurses in 6 fixed polyclinic hospitals in Suzhou in 2010, 2015 and 2019, respectively. This study used the revised version of the hospital WPV questionnaire. The count data are described as frequencies and percentages, and the measurement data are represented as means and standard deviations. The general data of nurses during different time periods, the incidence of WPV, nurses’ cognition and attitudes toward WPV and the attitudes and measures of hospitals regarding WPV were analyzed by the chi-square test.

          Results

          The incidence of WPV among nurses in Suzhou general hospitals in 2015 (69.0 %) and in 2019 (68.4 %) was higher than the incidence of 62.4 % in 2010 ( P<0.05), and there were significant differences among periods in the specific types of violence ( P˂0.05). Nurses who participated in the surveys in 2015 and 2019 scored higher on “having heard of WPV before”, “thinking WPV coping management organizations are needed” and “supporting a zero-tolerance policy” than those who participated in 2010 ( P<0.05). The attitudes and responses of hospitals with regard to WPV among nurses have greatly improved, as evidenced by the results for the items “offering training”, “encouraging reporting of WPV to supervisors”, “equipped with a WPV managing department”, “handling WPV efficiently” and “hospital’s attitudes” ( P<0.005).

          Conclusions

          Despite an increase in nurses’ awareness and attitudes regarding WPV and significant improvements in hospitals’ attitudes and responses to WPV, the incidence of WPV remains high. Hospitals should continue to explore scientific training modes that are in accordance with the needs of nurses to reduce the incidence of WPV.

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          Most cited references39

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          Prevalence of workplace violence against healthcare workers: a systematic review and meta-analysis

          We aim to quantitatively synthesise available epidemiological evidence on the prevalence rates of workplace violence (WPV) by patients and visitors against healthcare workers. We systematically searched PubMed, Embase and Web of Science from their inception to October 2018, as well as the reference lists of all included studies. Two authors independently assessed studies for inclusion. Data were double-extracted and discrepancies were resolved by discussion. The overall percentage of healthcare worker encounters resulting in the experience of WPV was estimated using random-effects meta-analysis. The heterogeneity was assessed using the I 2 statistic. Differences by study-level characteristics were estimated using subgroup analysis and meta-regression. We included 253 eligible studies (with a total of 331 544 participants). Of these participants, 61.9% (95% CI 56.1% to 67.6%) reported exposure to any form of WPV, 42.5% (95% CI 38.9% to 46.0%) reported exposure to non-physical violence, and 24.4% (95% CI 22.4% to 26.4%) reported experiencing physical violence in the past year. Verbal abuse (57.6%; 95% CI 51.8% to 63.4%) was the most common form of non-physical violence, followed by threats (33.2%; 95% CI 27.5% to 38.9%) and sexual harassment (12.4%; 95% CI 10.6% to 14.2%). The proportion of WPV exposure differed greatly across countries, study location, practice settings, work schedules and occupation. In this systematic review, the prevalence of WPV against healthcare workers is high, especially in Asian and North American countries, psychiatric and emergency department settings, and among nurses and physicians. There is a need for governments, policymakers and health institutions to take actions to address WPV towards healthcare professionals globally.
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            Workplace violence, job satisfaction, burnout, perceived organisational support and their effects on turnover intention among Chinese nurses in tertiary hospitals: a cross-sectional study

            Objectives Our aims were to assess the relationship between workplace violence, job satisfaction, burnout, organisational support and turnover intention, and to explore factors associated with turnover intention among nurses in Chinese tertiary hospitals. Methods The purposive sampling method was used to collect data from August 2016 through January 2017. A total of 1761 nurses from 9 public tertiary hospitals in 4 provinces (municipalities) located in eastern (Beijing), central (Heilongjiang, Anhui) and western (Shaanxi) regions of China completed the questionnaires (effective response rate=85.20%). A cross-sectional study was conducted using the Workplace Violence Scale, Chinese Maslach Burnout Inventory General Survey, Minnesota Job Satisfaction Questionnaire Revised Short Version, Perceived Organizational Support-Simplified Version Scale and Turnover Intention Scale. Results A total of 1216 of 1706 (69.1%) participants had high turnover intention. During the previous 12 months, the prevalence of physical violence and psychological violence towards nurses was 9.60% and 59.64%, respectively. As expected, the level of turnover intention was negatively correlated with participants’ scores on job satisfaction (r=−0.367, p<0.001) and perceived organisational support (r=−0.379, p<0.001), respectively. Burnout was positively associated with turnover intention (r=0.444, p<0.001). Workplace violence was positively associated with turnover intention (β=0.035, p<0.001) in linear regression analysis. The total effect (β=0.53) of workplace violence on turnover intention comprised its direct effect (β=0.36) and its indirect effect (β=0.17). Conclusions Perceived organisational support served as a mediator between workplace violence, job satisfaction, burnout and turnover intention, and it had a significantly negative impact on turnover intention. Therefore, nursing managers should understand the importance of the organisation’s support and establish a reasonable incentive system to decrease turnover intention.
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              Workplace violence in different settings and among various health professionals in an Italian general hospital: a cross-sectional study

              Background Workplace violence (WPV) against health professionals is a global problem with an increasing incidence. The aims of this study were as follows: 1) to examine the frequency and characteristics of WPV in different settings and professionals of a general hospital and 2) to identify the clinical and organizational factors related to this phenomenon. Methods The study was cross-sectional. In a 1-month period, we administered the “Violent Incident Form” to 745 professionals (physicians, head nurses, nurses, nursing assistants), who worked in 15 wards of a general hospital in northern Italy. Results With a response rate of 56%, 45% of professionals reported WPV. The most frequently assaulted were nurses (67%), followed by nursing assistants (18%) and physicians (12%). The first two categories were correlated, in a statistically significant way, with the risk of WPV (P=0.005, P=0.004, multiple logistic regression). The violent incidents more frequently occurred in psychiatry department (86%), emergency department (71%), and in geriatric wards (57%). The assailants more frequently were males whereas assaulted professionals more often were females. Men committed physical violence more frequently than women, in a statistically significant way (P=0.034, chi-squared test). Verbal violence (51%) was often committed by people in a lucid and normal state of consciousness; physical violence (49%) was most often perpetrated by assailants affected by dementia, mental retardation, drug and substance abuse, or other psychiatric disorders. The variables positively related to WPV were “calling for help during the attack” and “physical injuries suffered in violent attack” (P=0.02, P=0.03, multiple logistic regression). Conclusion This study suggests that violence is a significant phenomenon and that all health workers, especially nurses, are at risk of suffering aggressive assaults. WPV presented specific characteristics related to the health care settings, where the aggression occurred. Prevention programs tailored to the different care needs are necessary to promote professional awareness for violence risk.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                wanghaifang8519@163.com
                Journal
                BMC Health Serv Res
                BMC Health Serv Res
                BMC Health Services Research
                BioMed Central (London )
                1472-6963
                11 November 2021
                11 November 2021
                2021
                : 21
                : 1220
                Affiliations
                GRID grid.429222.d, ISNI 0000 0004 1798 0228, Department of Nursing, , the First Affiliated Hospital of Soochow University, ; 899 Pinghai Road, Gusu District, 215006 Suzhou, Jiangsu China
                Article
                7245
                10.1186/s12913-021-07245-y
                8582131
                33388053
                a776fe23-e4a5-403f-8d79-24d658f97b59
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                History
                : 24 August 2021
                : 29 October 2021
                Funding
                Funded by: Suzhou People's Livelihood Science and Technology
                Award ID: SYS2020111
                Award ID: SS202042
                Funded by: National Natural Science Foundation of China
                Award ID: 71874117
                Categories
                Research
                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2021

                Health & Social care
                nurse,workplace violence,general hospital,comparison
                Health & Social care
                nurse, workplace violence, general hospital, comparison

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