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      Safety and efficacy of subcutaneous tanezumab in patients with knee or hip osteoarthritis

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          Abstract

          Background/objective

          The objective of this study was to investigate the safety and efficacy of subcutaneous (SC) and intravenous (IV) tanezumab administration in osteoarthritis (OA) patients.

          Materials and methods

          Study 1027 (NCT01089725), a placebo-controlled trial, evaluated the efficacy of SC tanezumab (ie, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg) and the therapeutic equivalence of 10 mg tanezumab given subcutaneously versus intravenously every 8 weeks in the symptomatic treatment of OA. Coprimary endpoints were: change from baseline in Western Ontario and McMaster Universities Osteoarthritis index (WOMAC) Pain and Physical Function indices, and Patient’s Global Assessment (PGA) of OA. Study 1043 (NCT00994890) was a long-term, noncontrolled safety study of tanezumab (ie, 2.5, 5, and 10 mg) subcutaneously administered every 8 weeks. Both studies were discontinued prematurely due to a US Food and Drug Administration partial clinical hold.

          Results

          Due to the clinical hold, Study 1027 was underpowered, and no statistical analyses were performed. Mean (standard error [SE]) change from baseline to week 8 in WOMAC Pain in tanezumab groups ranged from −3.59 (0.26) to −3.89 (0.32), versus −2.74 (0.25) with placebo. Mean (SE) change from baseline to week 8 in WOMAC Physical Function ranged from −3.13 (0.25) to −3.51 (0.28) with tanezumab and was −2.26 (0.24) with placebo. PGA mean (SE) change from baseline to week 8 ranged from −0.90 (0.11) to −1.08 (0.12) with tanezumab and was −0.78 (0.10) with placebo. Similar effectiveness was associated with tanezumab in Study 1043. Few patients in either study (1.4%–5.2%) discontinued due to adverse events. Five patients required total joint replacements in Study 1027 (placebo, n=2 [2.8%]; tanezumab 2.5 mg, n=3 [4.1%]) and 34 patients in Study 1043 (tanezumab 2.5 mg, n=11 [4.8%]; tanezumab 5 mg, n=8 [3.6%]; tanezumab 10 mg, n=15 [6.6%]).

          Conclusion

          Preliminary results show similar efficacy and safety for both SC and IV administration of tanezumab based on the direct comparisons reported here and indirect comparisons with published results, confirming pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic modeling predictions.

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          Most cited references 18

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          The American College of Rheumatology criteria for the classification and reporting of osteoarthritis of the hip.

          Clinical criteria for the classification of patients with hip pain associated with osteoarthritis (OA) were developed through a multicenter study. Data from 201 patients who had experienced hip pain for most days of the prior month were analyzed. The comparison group of patients had other causes of hip pain, such as rheumatoid arthritis or spondylarthropathy. Variables from the medical history, physical examination, laboratory tests, and radiographs were used to develop different sets of criteria to serve different investigative purposes. Multivariate methods included the traditional "number of criteria present" format and "classification tree" techniques. Clinical criteria: A classification tree was developed, without radiographs, for clinical and laboratory criteria or for clinical criteria alone. A patient was classified as having hip OA if pain was present in combination with either 1) hip internal rotation greater than or equal to 15 degrees, pain present on internal rotation of the hip, morning stiffness of the hip for less than or equal to 60 minutes, and age greater than 50 years, or 2) hip internal rotation less than 15 degrees and an erythrocyte sedimentation rate (ESR) less than or equal to 45 mm/hour; if no ESR was obtained, hip flexion less than or equal to 115 degrees was substituted (sensitivity 86%; specificity 75%). Clinical plus radiographic criteria: The traditional format combined pain with at least 2 of the following 3 criteria: osteophytes (femoral or acetabular), joint space narrowing (superior, axial, and/or medial), and ESR less than 20 mm/hour (sensitivity 89%; specificity 91%). The radiographic presence of osteophytes best separated OA patients and controls by the classification tree method (sensitivity 89%; specificity 91%). The "number of criteria present" format yielded criteria and levels of sensitivity and specificity similar to those of the classification tree for the combined clinical and radiographic criteria set. For the clinical criteria set, the classification tree provided much greater specificity. The value of the radiographic presence of an osteophyte in separating patients with OA of the hip from those with hip pain of other causes is emphasized.
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            Antagonism of nerve growth factor-TrkA signaling and the relief of pain.

            Nerve growth factor (NGF) was originally discovered as a neurotrophic factor essential for the survival of sensory and sympathetic neurons during development. However, in the adult NGF has been found to play an important role in nociceptor sensitization after tissue injury. The authors outline mechanisms by which NGF activation of its cognate receptor, tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor, regulates a host of ion channels, receptors, and signaling molecules to enhance acute and chronic pain. The authors also document that peripherally restricted antagonism of NGF-tropomyosin-related kinase A receptor signaling is effective for controlling human pain while appearing to maintain normal nociceptor function. Understanding whether there are any unexpected adverse events and how humans may change their behavior and use of the injured/degenerating tissue after significant pain relief without sedation will be required to fully appreciate the patient populations that may benefit from these therapies targeting NGF.
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              Novel class of pain drugs based on antagonism of NGF.

              Nerve growth factor (NGF) was identified originally as a survival factor for sensory and sympathetic neurons in the developing nervous system. In adults, NGF is not required for survival but it has a crucial role in the generation of pain and hyperalgesia in several acute and chronic pain states. The expression of NGF is high in injured and inflamed tissues, and activation of the NGF receptor tyrosine kinase trkA on nociceptive neurons triggers and potentiates pain signalling by multiple mechanisms. Inhibition of NGF function and signalling blocks pain sensation as effectively as cyclooxygenase inhibitors and opiates in rodent models of pain. Several pharmaceutical companies have active drug-discovery and development programs that are based on a variety of approaches to antagonise NGF, including NGF 'capture', blocking the binding of NGF to trkA and inhibiting trkA signalling. NGF antagonism is expected to be a highly effective therapeutic approach in many pain states, and to be free of the adverse effects of traditional analgesic drugs.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                J Pain Res
                J Pain Res
                Journal of Pain Research
                Journal of Pain Research
                Dove Medical Press
                1178-7090
                2018
                08 January 2018
                : 11
                : 151-164
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Medicine, University of Massachusetts School of Medicine, Worcester, MA
                [2 ]Pensacola Research Consultants, Pensacola, FL
                [3 ]Clinical Development and Operations Business Unit, Pfizer Inc., Groton, CT, USA
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Mark T Brown, Clinical Development and Operations Business Unit, Pfizer Inc., MS8260-2210, 445 Eastern Point Road, Groton, CT 06340, USA, Tel +1 860 405 5194, Fax +1 860 686 7578, Email mark.t.brown@ 123456pfizer.com
                Article
                jpr-11-151
                10.2147/JPR.S135257
                5764290
                © 2018 Birbara et al. This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited

                The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed.

                Categories
                Clinical Trial Report

                Anesthesiology & Pain management

                tanezumab, subcutaneous, osteoarthritis, efficacy, safety

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