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Forced extrusion for removal of impacted third molars close to the mandibular canal Translated title: Extrusión forzada para extraer los terceros molares impactados cerca del canal mandibular

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      Abstract

      Impacted mandibular third molars can be located in close proximity to the mandibular canal. This creates a risk for the nerve or artery injury. These are contained in the canal. However, the impacted third molar can be moved coronally by orthodontic means, after removal of overlying bone, and safely extracted. The orthodontic intervention slowly moves the tooth apex away from the mandibular canal and reduces the potential for a neural injury. This method may be useful for older patients with root apices that approximate or are actually located in the mandibular canal. This technique needs further study. There is a theoretical potential for neural or arterial injury from physical contact of the tooth apex as it moves by or through the mandibular canal.

      Translated abstract

      Los terceros molares inferiores impactados pueden localizarse muy cerca del canal mandibular. Esto constituye un riesgo de lesión del nervio o la arteria, que se localizan dentro del canal. No obstante, el tercer molar impactado puede desplazarse en dirección coronal con ortodoncia, tras ostectomía del hueso suprayacente, y extraerse sin riesgos. La intervención ortodóncica desplaza lentamente el ápice del diente fuera del canal mandibular y reduce la posibilidad de lesión neural. Este método puede ser útil para pacientes de edad avanzada con ápices dentales que se aproximan o en realidad se localizan en el canal mandibular. La técnica necesita un estudio adicional. Hay la posibilidad teórica de lesión neural o arterial a partir del contacto físico del ápice del diente a medida que se desplaza a través del canal mandibular.

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      Accelerated osteogenic orthodontics technique: a 1-stage surgically facilitated rapid orthodontic technique with alveolar augmentation.

      Demineralization of a thin layer of bone over a root prominence after corticotomy surgery can optimize the response to applied orthodontic forces. This physiologic response is consistent with the regional acceleratory phenomenon process. When combined with alveolar augmentation, one is no longer strictly at the mercy of the original alveolar volume and osseous dehiscences, and fenestrations can be corrected over vital root surfaces. This is substantiated with computerized tomographic and histologic evaluations. Two case reports are presented that demonstrate the usefulness of the accelerated osteogenic orthodontics technique in de-crowding and space closing for the correction of dental malocclusions. Orthodontics is combined with full-thickness flap reflection, selective alveolar decortication, ostectomy, and bone grafting to accomplish complete orthodontic treatment. Rapid tooth movement was demonstrated in both cases and stability up to 8 years of retention. The accelerated osteogenic orthodontics technique provides for efficient and stable orthodontic tooth movement. Frequently, the teeth can be moved further in one third to one fourth the time required for traditional orthodontics alone. This is a physiologically based treatment consistent with a regional acceleratory phenomenon and maintaining an adequate blood supply is essential.
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        The regional acceleratory phenomenon: a review.

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          Extraction of impacted mandibular third molars: postoperative complications and their risk factors.

           F Blondeau,  N Daniel (2007)
          The purpose of this prospective study was to evaluate the incidence of various complications, including alveolitis, infection and paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve, in association with removal of impacted mandibular third molars. The relation between these 3 complications and several clinical variables (age, sex, degree of impaction, surgical difficulty and use of oral contraceptives) was also examined. Data were collected prospectively for all patients who underwent extraction of an impacted third molar in a single private dental practice over a 12-month period. A variety of data were collected for each patient, including age, sex, medical status at the time of the procedure and type of procedure performed. Patients were contacted at 2 days and 4 weeks after surgery to establish the occurrence of complications, and those with complications were treated; those with paresthesia were followed for at least 24 months. A total of 550 impacted mandibular third molars were extracted from 327 patients (136 males and 191 females). The complication rate was 6.9%, consisting of 20 cases of alveolitis, 12 cases of infection and 6 cases of paresthesia of the inferior alveolar nerve. Of the 6 neurosensory deficits, 3 resolved and 3 were permanent. The risk factors associated with permanent neurosensory deficit were female sex, Pell and Gregory IC or IIC classification of impaction, and age greater than 24 years. The risk of postoperative alveolitis and infection was also greater among women. There was no significant relation between the use of oral contraceptives and alveolitis. Surgical removal of impacted mandibular third molars should be carried out well before the age of 24 years, especially for female patients. Older patients are at greater risk of postoperative complications and permanent sequelae. A surgeon's lack of experience could also be a major factor in the development of postoperative complications.
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            Author and article information

            Contributors
            Role: ND
            Journal
            maxi
            Revista Española de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial
            Rev Esp Cirug Oral y Maxilofac
            Sociedad Española de Cirugía Oral y Maxilofacial (Barcelona, Barcelona, Spain)
            1130-0558
            2173-9161
            March 2012
            : 34
            : 1
            : 25-30
            S1130-05582012000100004

            This work is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial 4.0 International License.

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