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      Changes in lifestyles, cognitive impairment, quality of life and activity day living after combined use of smartphone and smartband technology: a randomized clinical trial (EVIDENT-Age study)


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          The aim of this study was to assess the efficacy of the combined use of smartphone and smartband technology for 3-months alongside brief lifestyle counselling, versus counselling alone, in increasing physical activity. As secondary objectives, the effects of the intervention on dietary habits, body composition, quality of life, level of functionality and cognitive performance were assessed.


          This study employed a randomized clinical trial of two-parallel groups design – control group (CG) and intervention group (IG). The study was conducted in 3 Spanish health-centres between October 2018-February 2020. Eligible participants were people of both sexes and aged between 65–80 years attending the health-centres with a score ≥ 24 points on the Mini-Mental State Examination. Key variables included physical activity, dietary pattern, body composition, cognitive performance, level of functionality and quality of life. All variables were measured at baseline and after 3-months. Both groups received a brief nutritional and physical activity advice. Intervention group participants were instructed to use a smartphone application for a period of 3-months. This application integrates information on physical activity received from a fitness bracelet and self-reported information on the patient’s daily nutritional composition.


          The study population comprised 160 participants (IG = 81, CG = 79), with a mean age of 70.8 ± 4.0 years (61.3% women). No difference was found in the primary and secondary outcomes analyzed (physical activity (steps/min -0.4 (-1.0 to 0.2) p = 0.174), and dietary habits (Mediterranean diet score 0.0 (-0.6 to 0.6) p = 0.956) that could be attributed to either group after an ANCOVA test. A difference attributable to the intervention was observed in the total Clock test score (0.7 (0.1 to 1.2) p = 0.018.


          In a sample of people over 65 years of age, the combined use of the EVIDENT 3 smartphone app and an activity tracking bracelet for 3-months did not result in lifestyles changes related to the amount and level of physical activity or the eating habits, compared to brief lifestyle advice. Other clinical parameters were not changed either, although at the cognitive level, a slight improvement was observed in the score on the Clock test assessing a variety of cognitive functions such as memory.

          Trial registration

          The study was registered in ClinicalTrials.gov Identifier: NCT03574480. Date of trial Registration 02/07/2018.

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          Most cited references34

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          The REDCap consortium: Building an international community of software platform partners

          The Research Electronic Data Capture (REDCap) data management platform was developed in 2004 to address an institutional need at Vanderbilt University, then shared with a limited number of adopting sites beginning in 2006. Given bi-directional benefit in early sharing experiments, we created a broader consortium sharing and support model for any academic, non-profit, or government partner wishing to adopt the software. Our sharing framework and consortium-based support model have evolved over time along with the size of the consortium (currently more than 3200 REDCap partners across 128 countries). While the "REDCap Consortium" model represents only one example of how to build and disseminate a software platform, lessons learned from our approach may assist other research institutions seeking to build and disseminate innovative technologies.
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            Calibration of the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. accelerometer.

            We established accelerometer count ranges for the Computer Science and Applications, Inc. (CSA) activity monitor corresponding to commonly employed MET categories. Data were obtained from 50 adults (25 males, 25 females) during treadmill exercise at three different speeds (4.8, 6.4, and 9.7 km x h(-1)). Activity counts and steady-state oxygen consumption were highly correlated (r = 0.88), and count ranges corresponding to light, moderate, hard, and very hard intensity levels were or = 9499 cnts x min(-1), respectively. A model to predict energy expenditure from activity counts and body mass was developed using data from a random sample of 35 subjects (r2 = 0.82, SEE = 1.40 kcal x min(-1)). Cross validation with data from the remaining 15 subjects revealed no significant differences between actual and predicted energy expenditure at any treadmill speed (SEE = 0.50-1.40 kcal x min(-1)). These data provide a template on which patterns of activity can be classified into intensity levels using the CSA accelerometer.
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              Measurement of functional activities in older adults in the community.

              Two measures of social function designed for community studies of normal aging and mild senile dementia were evaluated in 195 older adults who underwent neurological, cognitive, and affective assessment. An examining and a reviewing neurologist and a neurologically trained nurse independently rated each on a Scale of Functional Capacity. Interrater reliability was high (examining vs. reviewing neurologist, r = .97; examining neurologist vs. nurse, tau b = .802; p less than .001 for both comparisons). Estimates correlated well with an established measure of social function and with results of cognitive tests. Alternate informants evaluated participants on the Functional Activities Questionnaire and the Instrumental Activities of Daily Living Scale. The Functional Activities Questionnaire was superior to the Instrumental Activities of Daily scores. Used alone as a diagnostic tool, the Functional Activities Questionnaire was more sensitive than distinguishing between normal and demented individuals.

                Author and article information

                BMC Geriatr
                BMC Geriatr
                BMC Geriatrics
                BioMed Central (London )
                6 October 2022
                6 October 2022
                : 22
                [1 ]GRID grid.452531.4, Unidad de Investigación de Atención Primaria de Salamanca (APISAL), Instituto de Investigación Biomédica de Salamanca (IBSAL), , Red de investigación en cronicidad, Atención Primaria Y Promoción de La Salud (RICAPPS) (RD21/0016), Gerencia de Atención Primaria de Salamanca, Gerencia Regional de Salud de Castilla Y León (SACyL), ; Salamanca, Spain
                [2 ]GRID grid.11762.33, ISNI 0000 0001 2180 1817, Facultad de Enfermería Y Fisioterapia, , Universidad de Salamanca, ; Donantes de Sangre S/N, 37007 Salamanca, Spain
                [3 ]GRID grid.11762.33, ISNI 0000 0001 2180 1817, Departamento de Medicina, , Universidad de Salamanca, ; Salamanca, Spain
                [4 ]GRID grid.11762.33, ISNI 0000 0001 2180 1817, Departamento de Ciencias Biomédicas Y del Diagnóstico, , Universidad de Salamanca, ; Salamanca, Spain
                [5 ]GRID grid.5239.d, ISNI 0000 0001 2286 5329, Facultad de Enfermeria, , Universidad de Valladolid, ; Valladolid, Spain
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Open AccessThis article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons licence, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article's Creative Commons licence, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article's Creative Commons licence and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this licence, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/. The Creative Commons Public Domain Dedication waiver ( http://creativecommons.org/publicdomain/zero/1.0/) applies to the data made available in this article, unless otherwise stated in a credit line to the data.

                Custom metadata
                © The Author(s) 2022

                Geriatric medicine
                older adult,physical activity,nutrition,body composition,quality of life
                Geriatric medicine
                older adult, physical activity, nutrition, body composition, quality of life


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