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      Ankyrin Repeat Domain 1 Overexpression is Associated with Common Resistance to Afatinib and Osimertinib in EGFR-mutant Lung Cancer

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          Abstract

          Overcoming acquired resistance to epidermal growth factor receptor tyrosine kinase inhibitors (EGFR-TKIs) is critical in combating EGFR-mutant non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC). We tried to construct a novel therapeutic strategy to conquer the resistance to second-and third-generation EGFR-TKIs in EGFR-positive NSCLC patients. We established afatinib- and osimertinib-resistant lung adenocarcinoma cell lines. Exome sequencing, cDNA array and miRNA microarray were performed using the established cell lines to discover novel therapeutic targets associated with the resistance to second-and third-generation EGFR-TKIs. We found that ANKRD1 which is associated with the epithelial-mesenchymal transition (EMT) phenomenon and anti-apoptosis, was overexpressed in the second-and third-generation EGFR-TKIs-resistant cells at the mRNA and protein expression levels. When ANKRD1 was silenced in the EGFR-TKIs-resistant cell lines, afatinib and osimertinib could induce apoptosis of the cell lines. Imatinib could inhibit ANKRD1 expression, resulting in restoration of the sensitivity to afatinib and osimertinib of EGFR-TKI-resistant cells. In EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients, ANKRD1 was overexpressed in the tumor after the failure of EGFR-TKI therapy, especially after long-duration EGFR-TKI treatments. ANKRD1 overexpression which was associated with EMT features and anti-apoptosis, was commonly involved in resistance to second-and third-generation EGFR-TKIs. ANKRD1 inhibition could be a promising therapeutic strategy in EGFR-mutant NSCLC patients.

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          Most cited references 44

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          Cancer statistics, 2016.

          Each year, the American Cancer Society estimates the numbers of new cancer cases and deaths that will occur in the United States in the current year and compiles the most recent data on cancer incidence, mortality, and survival. Incidence data were collected by the National Cancer Institute (Surveillance, Epidemiology, and End Results [SEER] Program), the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (National Program of Cancer Registries), and the North American Association of Central Cancer Registries. Mortality data were collected by the National Center for Health Statistics. In 2016, 1,685,210 new cancer cases and 595,690 cancer deaths are projected to occur in the United States. Overall cancer incidence trends (13 oldest SEER registries) are stable in women, but declining by 3.1% per year in men (from 2009-2012), much of which is because of recent rapid declines in prostate cancer diagnoses. The cancer death rate has dropped by 23% since 1991, translating to more than 1.7 million deaths averted through 2012. Despite this progress, death rates are increasing for cancers of the liver, pancreas, and uterine corpus, and cancer is now the leading cause of death in 21 states, primarily due to exceptionally large reductions in death from heart disease. Among children and adolescents (aged birth-19 years), brain cancer has surpassed leukemia as the leading cause of cancer death because of the dramatic therapeutic advances against leukemia. Accelerating progress against cancer requires both increased national investment in cancer research and the application of existing cancer control knowledge across all segments of the population.
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            Activating mutations in the epidermal growth factor receptor underlying responsiveness of non-small-cell lung cancer to gefitinib.

            Most patients with non-small-cell lung cancer have no response to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib, which targets the epidermal growth factor receptor (EGFR). However, about 10 percent of patients have a rapid and often dramatic clinical response. The molecular mechanisms underlying sensitivity to gefitinib are unknown. We searched for mutations in the EGFR gene in primary tumors from patients with non-small-cell lung cancer who had a response to gefitinib, those who did not have a response, and those who had not been exposed to gefitinib. The functional consequences of identified mutations were evaluated after the mutant proteins were expressed in cultured cells. Somatic mutations were identified in the tyrosine kinase domain of the EGFR gene in eight of nine patients with gefitinib-responsive lung cancer, as compared with none of the seven patients with no response (P<0.001). Mutations were either small, in-frame deletions or amino acid substitutions clustered around the ATP-binding pocket of the tyrosine kinase domain. Similar mutations were detected in tumors from 2 of 25 patients with primary non-small-cell lung cancer who had not been exposed to gefitinib (8 percent). All mutations were heterozygous, and identical mutations were observed in multiple patients, suggesting an additive specific gain of function. In vitro, EGFR mutants demonstrated enhanced tyrosine kinase activity in response to epidermal growth factor and increased sensitivity to inhibition by gefitinib. A subgroup of patients with non-small-cell lung cancer have specific mutations in the EGFR gene, which correlate with clinical responsiveness to the tyrosine kinase inhibitor gefitinib. These mutations lead to increased growth factor signaling and confer susceptibility to the inhibitor. Screening for such mutations in lung cancers may identify patients who will have a response to gefitinib. Copyright 2004 Massachusetts Medical Society
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              EGFR mutations in lung cancer: correlation with clinical response to gefitinib therapy.

              Receptor tyrosine kinase genes were sequenced in non-small cell lung cancer (NSCLC) and matched normal tissue. Somatic mutations of the epidermal growth factor receptor gene EGFR were found in 15of 58 unselected tumors from Japan and 1 of 61 from the United States. Treatment with the EGFR kinase inhibitor gefitinib (Iressa) causes tumor regression in some patients with NSCLC, more frequently in Japan. EGFR mutations were found in additional lung cancer samples from U.S. patients who responded to gefitinib therapy and in a lung adenocarcinoma cell line that was hypersensitive to growth inhibition by gefitinib, but not in gefitinib-insensitive tumors or cell lines. These results suggest that EGFR mutations may predict sensitivity to gefitinib.
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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                mseike@nms.ac.jp
                Journal
                Sci Rep
                Sci Rep
                Scientific Reports
                Nature Publishing Group UK (London )
                2045-2322
                5 October 2018
                5 October 2018
                2018
                : 8
                Affiliations
                [1 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2173 8328, GRID grid.410821.e, Division of Pulmonary Medicine and Oncology, , Graduate School of Medicine, Nippon Medical School, ; Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo Japan
                [2 ]ISNI 0000 0001 2173 8328, GRID grid.410821.e, Division of Pathology, Graduate School of Medicine, , Nippon Medical School, ; Bunkyo-ku, Tokyo Japan
                Article
                33190
                10.1038/s41598-018-33190-8
                6173712
                30291293
                © The Author(s) 2018

                Open Access This article is licensed under a Creative Commons Attribution 4.0 International License, which permits use, sharing, adaptation, distribution and reproduction in any medium or format, as long as you give appropriate credit to the original author(s) and the source, provide a link to the Creative Commons license, and indicate if changes were made. The images or other third party material in this article are included in the article’s Creative Commons license, unless indicated otherwise in a credit line to the material. If material is not included in the article’s Creative Commons license and your intended use is not permitted by statutory regulation or exceeds the permitted use, you will need to obtain permission directly from the copyright holder. To view a copy of this license, visit http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/4.0/.

                Funding
                Funded by: Financial support: This study was supported in part by a grant-in-aid from the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science, and Technology of Japan (grant 16K09592 to M. Seike), and a Clinical Rebiopsy Bank Project for Comprehensive Cancer Therapy Development (to A. Gemma and M. Seike). Conflict of interest Dr. Gemma received a commercial research grant from AstraZeneka Co. and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and has received speakers&amp;#x2019; bureau honoraria from AstraZeneka Co. and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Dr K. Kubota received a commercial research grant from Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc. and has received speakers&amp;#x2019; bureau honoraria from AstraZeneka Co. and Boehringer Ingelheim Pharmaceuticals, Inc.. Dr. M. Seike has received speakers&amp;#x2019; bureau honoraria from AstraZeneka Co., Ltd. The other authors have no potential con&amp;#xFB02;icts of interest.
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