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      Resin bees of genus Megachile, subgenera Callomegachile and Carinula (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae) from Thailand with description of a new species

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          Abstract

          Resin bees of the genus Megachile subgenus Callomegachile sensu lato ( Hymenoptera ; Megachilidae ) from Thailand are reviewed. The 14 species treated include those described or revised in the subgenus Alocanthedon , a junior synonym of Callomegachile (three species), and in Carinula (one species). One new species is described, Megachile chiangmaiensis Chatthanabun and Warrit, sp. nov. The replacement name Megachile parornata Chatthanabun, Warrit and Ascher, nom. nov., is proposed for M. gigas Wu (not Schrottky), which is recorded for the first time outside China. For each species, maps and full label data for the examined material documenting occurrences in Thailand are provided. In addition, global ranges, floral associations, and other life history data are summarized and a key to the Thai species is provided for females.

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          Most cited references 57

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          A MONOGRAPH OF THE BALTIC AMBER BEES AND EVOLUTION OF THE APOIDEA (HYMENOPTERA)

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            Why do leafcutter bees cut leaves? New insights into the early evolution of bees.

            Stark contrasts in clade species diversity are reported across the tree of life and are especially conspicuous when observed in closely related lineages. The explanation for such disparity has often been attributed to the evolution of key innovations that facilitate colonization of new ecological niches. The factors underlying diversification in bees remain poorly explored. Bees are thought to have originated from apoid wasps during the Mid-Cretaceous, a period that coincides with the appearance of angiosperm eudicot pollen grains in the fossil record. The reliance of bees on angiosperm pollen and their fundamental role as angiosperm pollinators have contributed to the idea that both groups may have undergone simultaneous radiations. We demonstrate that one key innovation--the inclusion of foreign material in nest construction--underlies both a massive range expansion and a significant increase in the rate of diversification within the second largest bee family, Megachilidae. Basal clades within the family are restricted to deserts and exhibit plesiomorphic features rarely observed among modern bees, but prevalent among apoid wasps. Our results suggest that early bees inherited a suite of behavioural traits that acted as powerful evolutionary constraints. While the transition to pollen as a larval food source opened an enormous ecological niche for the early bees, the exploitation of this niche and the subsequent diversification of bees only became possible after bees had evolved adaptations to overcome these constraints.
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              Catalogue of the Hymenopterous Insects collected at Sarawak, Borneo; Mount Ophir, Malacca; and at Singapore, by A. R. Wallace.

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                Author and article information

                Contributors
                Journal
                Zookeys
                Zookeys
                2
                urn:lsid:arphahub.com:pub:45048D35-BB1D-5CE8-9668-537E44BD4C7E
                urn:lsid:zoobank.org:pub:91BD42D4-90F1-4B45-9350-EEF175B1727A
                ZooKeys
                Pensoft Publishers
                1313-2989
                1313-2970
                2020
                25 November 2020
                : 997
                : 95-144
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Center of Excellence in Entomology and Department of Biology, Faculty of Science, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok 10330, Thailand Chulalongkorn University Bangkok Thailand
                [2 ] Insect Diversity Lab, Department of Biological Sciences, National University of Singapore, 16 Science Drive 4 S3 Level 4, 117558, Singapore National University of Singapore Singapore Singapore
                [3 ] Department of Entomology, Faculty of Agriculture at Kamphaengsaen, Kasetsart University, Kamphaengsaen Campus, Nakhon Pathom, 73140, Thailand Kasetsart University Bangkok Thailand
                [4 ] Department of Life Sciences, The Natural History Museum, Cromwell Road, London SW7 5BD, UK The Natural History Museum London United Kingdom
                [5 ] Department of Life Sciences, Imperial College London, South Kensington Campus, Exhibition Road, London SW7 2AZ, UK Imperial College London London United Kingdom
                [6 ] Program in Biology, Faculty of Science, Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University, Ubon Ratchathani, 34000, Thailand Ubon Ratchathani Rajabhat University Ubon Ratchathani Thailand
                Author notes
                Corresponding author: Natapot Warrit ( natapot.w@ 123456chula.ac.th )

                Academic editor: Andreas Köhler

                Article
                34935
                10.3897/zookeys.997.34935
                7710695
                Nontawat Chatthanabun, John S. Ascher, Nantasak Pinkaew, Chawatat Thanoosing, Prapun Traiyasut, Natapot Warrit

                This is an open access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution License (CC BY 4.0), which permits unrestricted use, distribution, and reproduction in any medium, provided the original author and source are credited.

                Categories
                Research Article
                Megachilidae
                Systematics
                Cenozoic
                Asia

                Animal science & Zoology

                southeast asia, apoidea , pollinator, megachilini

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