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Determination of Ascorbic Acid Content of Some Fruit Juices and Wine by Voltammetry Performed at Pt and Carbon Paste Electrodes

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      Abstract

      A method was developed for assessing ascorbic acid concentration in fruit juices and wine by differential pulse voltammetry. The oxidation peak for ascorbic acid occurs at about 530 mV (versus SCE) on a Pt strip working electrode and at about 470 mV on a carbon paste working electrode. The influence of the operational parameters like the pulse amplitude and the pulse period on the analytical signal was investigated. The obtained calibration graph shows a linear dependence between the peak height and ascorbic acid concentration within the range 0.31-20 mM with a Pt working electrode, and within the range 0.07-20 mM with a carbon paste working electrode. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 21.839x + 35.726, r 2 = 0.9940, when a Pt strip electrode was used (where y represents the value of the current intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as µA and x the analyte concentration, as mM). R.S.D. = 2.09%, n = 10, C ascorbic acid = 2.5 mM. The equation of the calibration graph was y = 3.4429x + 5.7334, r 2 = 0.9971, when a carbon paste electrode was used (where y represents the value of intensity measured for the peak height, expressed as µA and x the analyte concentration, as mM). R.S.D. = 2.35%, n = 10, C ascorbic acid = 2.5 mM. The developed method was applied to ascorbic acid assessment in fruit juices and wine. The ascorbic acid content determined ranged between 6.83 mg/100 mL juice for soft drinks (Fanta Madness) and 54.74 mg/100 mL for citrus (lemon) juices obtained by squeezing fruit. Different ascorbic acid concentrations (from standard solutions) were added to the analysed samples, the degree of recovery being comprised between 94.74 and 104.97%. The results of ascorbic acid assessment by differential pulse voltammetry were compared with those obtained by cyclic voltammetry. The results obtained by the two methods were in good agreement.

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      Total Antioxidant Capacity of Some Commercial Fruit Juices: Electrochemical and Spectrophotometrical Approaches

      The aim of this paper was to assess the total antioxidant capacity of some commercial fruit juices (namely citrus), spectrophotometrically and by the biamperometric method, using the redox couple DPPH· (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl)/DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazine). Trolox® was chosen as a standard antioxidant. In the case of the spectrophometric method, the absorbance decrease of the DPPH· solution was followed. For the biamperometric method, the influence of some parameters like the potential diference, ΔE, DPPH· concentration, and Trolox® concentration was investigated. The calibration graph obtained for Trolox® presents linearity between 5 and 30 µM, (y = 0.059 x + 0.0564, where y represents the value of current intensity, expressed as μA and x the value of Trolox® concentration, expressed as μM; r2 = 0.9944). The R.S.D. value for the biamperometric method was 1.29% (n = 10, c = 15 μM Trolox®). In the case of the spectrophotometric method, the calibration graph obtained for Trolox® presents linearity between 0.01 and 0.125 mM (y = -9.5789 x+1.4533, where y represents the value of absorbance and x, the value of Trolox® concentration, expressed as mM; r2 = 0.9963). The R.S.D. value for the spectrophotometric method was 2.05%. Both methods were applied to total antioxidant activity determination in real samples (natural juices and soft drinks) and the results were in good agreement.
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        Electrochemical approach for discriminating and measuring predominant flavonoids and phenolic acids using differential pulse voltammetry: towards an electrochemical index of natural antioxidants

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          Determination of Vitamin C (Ascorbic Acid) Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography Coupled with Electrochemical Detection

          Vitamin C (ascorbic acid, ascorbate, AA) is a water soluble organic compound that participates in many biological processes. The main aim of this paper was to utilize two electrochemical detectors (amperometric – Coulouchem III and coulometric – CoulArray) coupled with flow injection analysis for the detection of ascorbic acid. Primarily, we optimized the experimental conditions. The optimized conditions were as follows: detector potential 100 mV, temperature 25 °C, mobile phase 0.09% TFA:ACN, 3:97 (v/v) and flow rate 0.13 mL·min-1. The tangents of the calibration curves were 0.3788 for the coulometric method and 0.0136 for the amperometric one. The tangent of the calibration curve measured by the coulometric detector was almost 30 times higher than the tangent measured by the amperometric detector. Consequently, we coupled a CoulArray electrochemical detector with high performance liquid chromatography and estimated the detection limit for AA as 90 nM (450 fmol per 5 μL injection). The method was used for the determination of vitamin C in a pharmaceutical preparations (98 ± 2 mg per tablet), in oranges (Citrus aurantium) (varied from 30 to 56 mg/100 g fresh weight), in apples (Malus sp.) (varied from 11 to 19 mg/100 g fresh weight), and in human blood serum (varied from 38 to 78 μM). The recoveries were also determined.
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            Author and article information

            Affiliations
            [1 ] Chemistry and Biochemistry Department, University of Agronomic Sciences and Veterinary Medicine of Bucharest, 59, Marasti Street, 011464, Bucharest, Romania
            [2 ] Faculty of Natural Sciences, Vasile Goldis Western University, 94, Revolutiei Avenue, Arad, Romania
            Author notes
            [* ] To whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: apisoschi@ 123456yahoo.com .
            Journal
            Molecules
            Molecules
            molecules
            Molecules
            MDPI
            1420-3049
            01 February 2011
            February 2011
            : 16
            : 2
            : 1349-1365
            21285920 6259606 10.3390/molecules16021349 molecules-16-01349
            © 2011 by the authors;

            licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland. This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

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