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      Effects of Continuous Subcutaneous Insulin Infusion on Glycaemic Control and Acute Complications in Young People with Type 1 Diabetes in Bangladesh

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          Objective: The objective of this study was to assess the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) therapy on glycaemic control and acute complications in children, adolescents, and young adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus (T1DM). Methods: The prospective observational study was done in patients on multiple daily injection (MDI) switching to pump system. All patients were followed at the Paediatric Diabetes Clinic at BIRDEM Hospital. They were trained on carbohydrates counting and started on continuous basal insulin infusion in addition to meal and high blood glucose correction insulin boluses. They were followed on insulin pump therapy for a 6-month period. Results: Twenty patients were analysed, from baseline to visit 2 after 6 months. The patients included in the study had T1DM for a mean duration of 4.7 ± 3.1 years. The age ranged from 3 to 25 years (mean 13.7 ± 6.1). There was 1% reduction in haemoglobin A1c (HbA1c) after 6 months, though it did not reach the statistical significance ( p = 0.084). There was significant reduction of mean fasting blood glucose level 13.4 ± 7.0 versus 6.9 ± 1.6 mmol/L ( p = 0.001), total insulin requirement ( p = 0.043), frequency of hypoglycaemic episodes ( p = 0.006), and diabetic ketoacidosis ( p = 0.002) events during CSII therapy. Conclusion: In our study, we found that switching young T1DM patients from MDI to insulin pump had been effective with achievement of a reduction in fasting blood glucose, HbA1c, and acute complications.

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          The Effect of Intensive Treatment of Diabetes on the Development and Progression of Long-Term Complications in Insulin-Dependent Diabetes Mellitus

          Long-term microvascular and neurologic complications cause major morbidity and mortality in patients with insulin-dependent diabetes mellitus (IDDM). We examined whether intensive treatment with the goal of maintaining blood glucose concentrations close to the normal range could decrease the frequency and severity of these complications. A total of 1441 patients with IDDM--726 with no retinopathy at base line (the primary-prevention cohort) and 715 with mild retinopathy (the secondary-intervention cohort) were randomly assigned to intensive therapy administered either with an external insulin pump or by three or more daily insulin injections and guided by frequent blood glucose monitoring or to conventional therapy with one or two daily insulin injections. The patients were followed for a mean of 6.5 years, and the appearance and progression of retinopathy and other complications were assessed regularly. In the primary-prevention cohort, intensive therapy reduced the adjusted mean risk for the development of retinopathy by 76 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 62 to 85 percent), as compared with conventional therapy. In the secondary-intervention cohort, intensive therapy slowed the progression of retinopathy by 54 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 39 to 66 percent) and reduced the development of proliferative or severe nonproliferative retinopathy by 47 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 14 to 67 percent). In the two cohorts combined, intensive therapy reduced the occurrence of microalbuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of > or = 40 mg per 24 hours) by 39 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 21 to 52 percent), that of albuminuria (urinary albumin excretion of > or = 300 mg per 24 hours) by 54 percent (95 percent confidence interval 19 to 74 percent), and that of clinical neuropathy by 60 percent (95 percent confidence interval, 38 to 74 percent). The chief adverse event associated with intensive therapy was a two-to-threefold increase in severe hypoglycemia. Intensive therapy effectively delays the onset and slows the progression of diabetic retinopathy, nephropathy, and neuropathy in patients with IDDM.
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            Continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion versus multiple daily insulin injections in patients with diabetes mellitus: systematic review and meta-analysis.

            We compared the effects of continuous subcutaneous insulin infusion (CSII) with those of multiple daily insulin (MDI) injections on glycaemic control, risk of hypoglycaemic episodes, insulin requirements and adverse events in type 1 and type 2 diabetes mellitus. The electronic databases MEDLINE, EMBASE and CENTRAL were systematically searched for randomised controlled trials up to March 2007. A systematic review and meta-analysis were performed. Overall, 22 studies were included (17 on type 1 diabetes mellitus, two on type 2 diabetes mellitus, three on children). With regard to adults with type 1 diabetes mellitus, our meta-analysis found a between-treatment difference of -0.4% HbA(1c) (six studies) in favour of CSII therapy. Available median rates of mild or overall hypoglycaemic events were comparable between the different interventions (1.9 [0.9-3.1] [CSII] vs 1.7 [1.1-3.3] [MDI] events per patient per week). Total daily insulin requirements were lower with CSII than with MDI therapy. In patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus, CSII and MDI treatment showed no statistically significant difference for HbA(1c). The incidence of mild hypoglycaemic events was comparable between the treatment groups. In adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus, glycated haemoglobin and insulin requirements were significantly lower in the CSII groups; no data were available on hypoglycaemic events. The only study performed in younger children did not provide enough data for conclusive inferences. No overall conclusions were possible for severe hypoglycaemia and adverse events for any of the different patient groups due to rareness of such events, different definitions and insufficient reporting. CSII therapy in adults and adolescents with type 1 diabetes mellitus resulted in a greater reduction of glycated haemoglobin, in adult patients without a higher rate of hypoglycaemia. No beneficial effect of CSII therapy could be detected for patients with type 2 diabetes mellitus.
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              Long-term outcome of insulin pump therapy in children with type 1 diabetes assessed in a large population-based case-control study.

              We determined the impact of insulin pump therapy on long-term glycaemic control, BMI, rate of severe hypoglycaemia and diabetic ketoacidosis (DKA) in children. Patients on pump therapy at a single paediatric tertiary hospital were matched to patients treated by injections on the basis of age, duration of diabetes and HbA1c at the time of pump start. HbA1c, anthropometric data, episodes of severe hypoglycaemia and rates of hospitalisation for DKA were collected prospectively. A total of 345 patients on pump therapy were matched to controls on injections. The mean age, duration of diabetes at pump start and length of follow-up were 11.4 (± 3.5), 4.1 (± 3.0) and 3.5 (± 2.5) years, respectively. The mean HbA1c reduction in the pump cohort was 0.6% (6.6 mmol/mol). This improved HbA1c remained significant throughout the 7 years of follow-up. Pump therapy reduced severe hypoglycaemia from 14.7 to 7.2 events per 100 patient-years (p < 0.001). In contrast, severe hypoglycaemia increased in the non-pump cohort over the same period from 6.8 to 10.2 events per 100 patient-years. The rate of hospitalisation for DKA was lower in the pump cohort (2.3 vs 4.7 per 100 patient-years, p = 0.003) over the 1,160 patient-years of follow-up. This is the longest and largest study of insulin pump use in children and demonstrates that pump therapy provides a sustained improvement in glycaemic control, and reductions of severe hypoglycaemia and hospitalisation for DKA compared with a matched cohort using injections.

                Author and article information

                International Journal of Diabetes and Metabolism
                S. Karger AG
                January 2021
                28 October 2020
                : 26
                : 4
                : 174-179
                aDepartment of Paediatrics & Changing Diabetes in Children Programme, Bangladesh Institute of Research & Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine & Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), Dhaka, Bangladesh
                bInstitute of Endocrinology and Diabetes, The Children’s Hospital at Westmead, Sydney, New South Wales, Australia
                Author notes
                *Bedowra Zabeen, Department of Paediatrics and Changing Diabetes in Children Programme, Bangladesh Institute of Research &amp; Rehabilitation in Diabetes, Endocrine and Metabolic Disorders (BIRDEM), 1/A Segunbagicha Room 309 BIRDEM 2, Dhaka 1000 (Bangladesh), bzabeen@hotmail.com
                511241 Dubai Diabetes Endocrinol J 2020;26:174–179
                © 2020 The Author(s). Published by S. Karger AG, Basel

                This article is licensed under the Creative Commons Attribution-NonCommercial-NoDerivatives 4.0 International License (CC BY-NC-ND). Usage and distribution for commercial purposes as well as any distribution of modified material requires written permission. Drug Dosage: The authors and the publisher have exerted every effort to ensure that drug selection and dosage set forth in this text are in accord with current recommendations and practice at the time of publication. However, in view of ongoing research, changes in government regulations, and the constant flow of information relating to drug therapy and drug reactions, the reader is urged to check the package insert for each drug for any changes in indications and dosage and for added warnings and precautions. This is particularly important when the recommended agent is a new and/or infrequently employed drug. Disclaimer: The statements, opinions and data contained in this publication are solely those of the individual authors and contributors and not of the publishers and the editor(s). The appearance of advertisements or/and product references in the publication is not a warranty, endorsement, or approval of the products or services advertised or of their effectiveness, quality or safety. The publisher and the editor(s) disclaim responsibility for any injury to persons or property resulting from any ideas, methods, instructions or products referred to in the content or advertisements.

                Page count
                Figures: 2, Tables: 2, Pages: 6
                Clinical Images in Diabetes and Metabolism – Research Article


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