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      A global view of hepatocellular carcinoma: trends, risk, prevention and management

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          Abstract

          Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the fourth most common cause of cancer-related death worldwide. Risk factors for HCC include chronic hepatitis B and hepatitis C, alcohol addiction, metabolic liver disease (particularly nonalcoholic fatty liver disease) and exposure to dietary toxins such as aflatoxins and aristolochic acid. All these risk factors are potentially preventable, highlighting the considerable potential of risk prevention for decreasing the global burden of HCC. HCC surveillance and early detection increase the chance of potentially curative treatment; however, HCC surveillance is substantially underutilized, even in countries with sufficient medical resources. Early-stage HCC can be treated curatively by local ablation, surgical resection or liver transplantation. Treatment selection depends on tumour characteristics, the severity of underlying liver dysfunction, age, other medical comorbidities, and available medical resources and local expertise. Catheter-based locoregional treatment is used in patients with intermediate-stage cancer. Kinase and immune checkpoint inhibitors have been shown to be effective treatment options in patients with advanced-stage HCC. Together, rational deployment of prevention, attainment of global goals for viral hepatitis eradication, and improvements in HCC surveillance and therapy hold promise for achieving a substantial reduction in the worldwide HCC burden within the next few decades.

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          Most cited references119

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          Comprehensive and Integrative Genomic Characterization of Hepatocellular Carcinoma

          (2017)
          Liver cancer has the second highest worldwide cancer mortality rate and has limited therapeutic options. We analyzed 363 hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) cases by whole exome sequencing and DNA copy number analyses, and 196 HCC also by DNA methylation, RNA, miRNA, and proteomic expression. DNA sequencing and mutation analysis identified significantly mutated genes including LZTR1 , EEF1A1 , SF3B1 , and SMARCA4 . Significant alterations by mutation or down-regulation by hypermethylation in genes likely to result in HCC metabolic reprogramming ( ALB , APOB , and CPS1 ) were observed. Integrative molecular HCC subtyping incorporating unsupervised clustering of five data platforms identified three subtypes, one of which was associated with poorer prognosis in three HCC cohorts. Integrated analyses enabled development of a p53 target gene expression signature correlating with poor survival. Potential therapeutic targets for which inhibitors exist include WNT signaling, MDM4, MET, VEGFA, MCL1, IDH1, TERT, and immune checkpoint proteins CTLA-4, PD-1, and PD-L1. Multiplex molecular profiling of human hepatocellular carcinoma patients provides insight into subtype characteristics and points toward key pathways to target therapeutically.
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            Is Open Access

            Global patterns of hepatocellular carcinoma management from diagnosis to death: the BRIDGE Study

            Background & Aims Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is the second most common cause of cancer deaths worldwide. The global HCC BRIDGE study was a multiregional, large-scale, longitudinal cohort study undertaken to improve understanding of real-life management of patients with HCC, from diagnosis to death. Methods Data were collected retrospectively from January 2005 to September 2012 by chart reviews of eligible patients newly diagnosed with HCC at participating institutions. Results Forty-two sites in 14 countries contributed final data for 18 031 patients. Asia accounted for 67% of patients, Europe for 20% and North America for 13%. As expected, the most common risk factor was hepatitis C virus in North America, Europe and Japan, and hepatitis B virus in China, South Korea and Taiwan. The most common Barcelona Clinic Liver Cancer stage at diagnosis was C in North America, Europe, China and South Korea, and A in Taiwan and Japan. Across all stages, first HCC treatment was most frequently transarterial chemoembolization in North America, Europe, China and South Korea, percutaneous ethanol injection or radiofrequency ablation in Japan and resection in Taiwan. Survival from first HCC treatment varied significantly by region, with median overall survival not reached for Taiwan and 60, 33, 31, 24 and 23 months for Japan, North America, South Korea, Europe and China respectively (P < 0.0001). Conclusions Initial results from the BRIDGE study confirm previously reported regional trends in patient demographic characteristics and HCC risk factors, document the heterogeneity of treatment approaches across regions/countries and underscore the need for earlier HCC diagnosis worldwide.
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              Integrative transcriptome analysis reveals common molecular subclasses of human hepatocellular carcinoma.

              Hepatocellular carcinoma (HCC) is a highly heterogeneous disease, and prior attempts to develop genomic-based classification for HCC have yielded highly divergent results, indicating difficulty in identifying unified molecular anatomy. We performed a meta-analysis of gene expression profiles in data sets from eight independent patient cohorts across the world. In addition, aiming to establish the real world applicability of a classification system, we profiled 118 formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded tissues from an additional patient cohort. A total of 603 patients were analyzed, representing the major etiologies of HCC (hepatitis B and C) collected from Western and Eastern countries. We observed three robust HCC subclasses (termed S1, S2, and S3), each correlated with clinical parameters such as tumor size, extent of cellular differentiation, and serum alpha-fetoprotein levels. An analysis of the components of the signatures indicated that S1 reflected aberrant activation of the WNT signaling pathway, S2 was characterized by proliferation as well as MYC and AKT activation, and S3 was associated with hepatocyte differentiation. Functional studies indicated that the WNT pathway activation signature characteristic of S1 tumors was not simply the result of beta-catenin mutation but rather was the result of transforming growth factor-beta activation, thus representing a new mechanism of WNT pathway activation in HCC. These experiments establish the first consensus classification framework for HCC based on gene expression profiles and highlight the power of integrating multiple data sets to define a robust molecular taxonomy of the disease.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Nature Reviews Gastroenterology & Hepatology
                Nat Rev Gastroenterol Hepatol
                Springer Science and Business Media LLC
                1759-5045
                1759-5053
                August 22 2019
                Article
                10.1038/s41575-019-0186-y
                6813818
                31439937
                a7d1864e-6369-414c-91df-0219dbb90da8
                © 2019

                http://www.springer.com/tdm

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