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      Beneficial effects of resveratrol and exercise training on cardiac and aortic function and structure in the 3xTg mouse model of Alzheimer’s disease

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          Abstract

          Background: Studies have indicated an association between Alzheimer’s disease (AD) and increased risk of developing cardiovascular complications. Lifestyle modifiable factors, such as exercise and diet, are known to prevent cardio-cerebral disease. Recent studies demonstrate that hearts from early onset triple-transgenic AD mice exhibit pathologies, but it is not clear whether cardiovascular function is altered in this model. Methods: In this study, we measured in vivo cardiovascular function in 7-month-old male 3xTg mice and age-matched wild-type (WT) mice using high-frequency high-resolution ultrasound imaging. Results: Our findings indicated that aortic root measurements and interventricular septal dimensions were similar in 3xTg and wild-type mice. Systolic function, expressed as ejection fraction and fractional shortening, were decreased in 3xTg mice. Late (A) ventricular filling velocities, the early/atrial (E/A) ratio, and mitral valve deceleration time, all indices of diastolic function, were increased in 3xTg mice compared to WT mice. Treadmill exercise training and resveratrol supplementation in the diet for 5 months improved ejection fraction, fractional shortening, and restored diastolic deceleration times. Pulse wave velocity was ~33% higher in 3xTg, and accompanied by a significant increase in elastin fiber fragmentation within the aortic wall, which was associated with decrease in elastin content and fiber length. Aortic wall and adventitia thickness were increased in 3xTg mice compared to the WT group. Exercise training and resveratrol supplementation, or both, improved overall aortic morphology with no change in pulse wave velocity. Conclusion: Taken together, the results indicate that the aberrations in cardiac function and aortic elastin morphology observed in the 3xTg mouse model of AD can be prevented with exercise training and treatment with resveratrol. The benefits of regular exercise training and resveratrol supplementation of heart and aortic structure in the 3xTg mouse support the value of healthy lifestyle factors on cardiovascular health.

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          Most cited references 59

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          Functional alterations in memory networks in early Alzheimer's disease.

          The hallmark clinical symptom of early Alzheimer's disease (AD) is episodic memory impairment. Recent functional imaging studies suggest that memory function is subserved by a set of distributed networks, which include both the medial temporal lobe (MTL) system and the set of cortical regions collectively referred to as the default network. Specific regions of the default network, in particular, the posteromedial cortices, including the precuneus and posterior cingulate, are selectively vulnerable to early amyloid deposition in AD. These regions are also thought to play a key role in both memory encoding and retrieval, and are strongly functionally connected to the MTL. Multiple functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI) studies during memory tasks have revealed alterations in these networks in patients with clinical AD. Similar functional abnormalities have been detected in subjects at-risk for AD, including those with genetic risk and older individuals with mild cognitive impairment. Recently, we and other groups have found evidence of functional alterations in these memory networks even among cognitively intact older individuals with occult amyloid pathology, detected by PET amyloid imaging. Taken together, these findings suggest that the pathophysiological process of AD exerts specific deleterious effects on these distributed memory circuits, even prior to clinical manifestations of significant memory impairment. Interestingly, some of the functional alterations seen in prodromal AD subjects have taken the form of increases in activity relative to baseline, rather than a loss of activity. It remains unclear whether these increases in fMRI activity may be compensatory to maintain memory performance in the setting of early AD pathology or instead, represent evidence of excitotoxicity and impending neuronal failure. Recent studies have also revealed disruption of the intrinsic connectivity of these networks observable even during the resting state in early AD and asymptomatic individuals with high amyloid burden. Research is ongoing to determine if these early network alterations will serve as sensitive predictors of clinical decline, and eventually, as markers of pharmacological response to potential disease-modifying treatments for AD.
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            Prevalence of Alzheimer's disease in a community population of older persons. Higher than previously reported.

            Clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease and other dementing illnesses were assessed in a geographically defined US community. Of 3623 persons (80.8% of all community residents over 65 years of age) who had brief memory testing in their homes, a stratified sample of 467 persons underwent neurological, neuropsychological, and laboratory examination. Prevalence rates of Alzheimer's disease were calculated for the community population from the sample undergoing clinical evaluation. Of those over the age of 65 years, an estimated 10.3% (95% confidence limits, 8.1% and 12.5%) had probable Alzheimer's disease. This prevalence rate was strongly associated with age. Of those 65 to 74 years old, 3.0% (95% confidence limits, 0.8 and 5.2) had probable Alzheimer's disease, compared with 18.7% (95% confidence limits, 13.2 and 24.2) of those 75 to 84 years old and 47.2% (95% confidence limits, 37.0 and 63.2) of those over 85 years. Other dementing conditions were uncommon. Of community residents with moderate or severe cognitive impairment, 84.1% had clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease as the only probable diagnosis. These data suggest that clinically diagnosed Alzheimer's disease is a common condition and that its public health impact will continue to increase with increasing longevity of the population.
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              Wine, alcohol, platelets, and the French paradox for coronary heart disease.

              In most countries, high intake of saturated fat is positively related to high mortality from coronary heart disease (CHD). However, the situation in France is paradoxical in that there is high intake of saturated fat but low mortality from CHD. This paradox may be attributable in part to high wine consumption. Epidemiological studies indicate that consumption of alcohol at the level of intake in France (20-30 g per day) can reduce risk of CHD by at least 40%. Alcohol is believed to protect from CHD by preventing atherosclerosis through the action of high-density-lipoprotein cholesterol, but serum concentrations of this factor are no higher in France than in other countries. Re-examination of previous results suggests that, in the main, moderate alcohol intake does not prevent CHD through an effect on atherosclerosis, but rather through a haemostatic mechanism. Data from Caerphilly, Wales, show that platelet aggregation, which is related to CHD, is inhibited significantly by alcohol at levels of intake associated with reduced risk of CHD. Inhibition of platelet reactivity by wine (alcohol) may be one explanation for protection from CHD in France, since pilot studies have shown that platelet reactivity is lower in France than in Scotland.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                Drug Des Devel Ther
                DDDT
                dddt
                Drug Design, Development and Therapy
                Dove
                1177-8881
                17 April 2019
                2019
                : 13
                : 1197-1211
                Affiliations
                [1 ]Department of Biomedical Sciences, College of Graduate Studies, Midwestern University , Glendale, AZ, USA
                [2 ]Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Diabetes and Exercise Metabolism, College of Graduate Studies, Midwestern University , Glendale, AZ, USA
                [3 ]Department of Nutrition, Dietetics, and Hospitality Management, Auburn University , Auburn, AL, USA
                [4 ]Cardiovascular Research Centre, Mazankowski Alberta Heart Institute University of Alberta , Edmonton, AB, Canada
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Tom L BroderickMidwestern University, Department of Physiology, Laboratory of Diabetes and Exercise Metabolism , 19555 North 59th Avenue, Glendale, AZ85308, USATel +1 623 572 3664Fax +1 623 572 3673Email tbrode@ 123456midwestern.edu
                Article
                196119
                10.2147/DDDT.S196119
                6489623
                © 2019 Esfandiarei et al.

                This work is published and licensed by Dove Medical Press Limited. The full terms of this license are available at https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php and incorporate the Creative Commons Attribution – Non Commercial (unported, v3.0) License ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/3.0/). By accessing the work you hereby accept the Terms. Non-commercial uses of the work are permitted without any further permission from Dove Medical Press Limited, provided the work is properly attributed. For permission for commercial use of this work, please see paragraphs 4.2 and 5 of our Terms ( https://www.dovepress.com/terms.php).

                Page count
                Figures: 7, Tables: 2, References: 79, Pages: 15
                Categories
                Original Research

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