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      Phytobiotics in poultry and swine nutrition – a review

      1 , 1
      Italian Journal of Animal Science
      Informa UK Limited

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          The phenolic hydroxyl group of carvacrol is essential for action against the food-borne pathogen Bacillus cereus.

          The natural antimicrobial compound carvacrol shows a high preference for hydrophobic phases. The partition coefficients of carvacrol in both octanol-water and liposome-buffer phases were determined (3.64 and 3.26, respectively). Addition of carvacrol to a liposomal suspension resulted in an expansion of the liposomal membrane. Maximum expansion was observed after the addition of 0.50 micromol of carvacrol/mg of L-alpha-phosphatidylethanolamine. Cymene, a biological precursor of carvacrol which lacks a hydroxyl group, was found to have a higher preference for liposomal membranes, thereby causing more expansion. The effect of cymene on the membrane potential was less pronounced than the effect of carvacrol. The pH gradient and ATP pools were not affected by cymene. Measurement of the antimicrobial activities of compounds similar to carvacrol (e.g., thymol, cymene, menthol, and carvacrol methyl ester) showed that the hydroxyl group of this compound and the presence of a system of delocalized electrons are important for the antimicrobial activity of carvacrol. Based on this study, we hypothesize that carvacrol destabilizes the cytoplasmic membrane and, in addition, acts as a proton exchanger, thereby reducing the pH gradient across the cytoplasmic membrane. The resulting collapse of the proton motive force and depletion of the ATP pool eventually lead to cell death.
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            Antioxidant and Anti-Inflammatory Activities of Essential Oils: A Short Review

            Essential oils are complex mixtures isolated from aromatic plants which may possess antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities of interest in thye food and cosmetic industries as well as in the human health field. In this work, a review was done on the most recent publications concerning their antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities. At the same time a survey of the methods generally used for the evaluation of antioxidant activity and some of the mechanisms involved in the anti-inflammatory activities of essential oils are also reported.
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              Essential oils in poultry nutrition: Main effects and modes of action

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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Italian Journal of Animal Science
                Italian Journal of Animal Science
                Informa UK Limited
                1828-051X
                January 02 2018
                July 17 2017
                January 02 2018
                : 17
                : 1
                : 92-99
                Affiliations
                [1 ] Department of Animal Resource and Science, Dankook University, Cheonan, South Korea
                Article
                10.1080/1828051X.2017.1350120
                a7d41378-24b2-4a8a-b502-3c8298dca617
                © 2018

                http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by-nc/4.0/

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