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      Alternatives to methyl bromide treatments for stored-product and quarantine insects.

      Annual review of entomology
      Animals, Fumigation, Hydrocarbons, Brominated, Insect Control, methods, Insecticides, Insects

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          Abstract

          Methyl bromide is used to control insects as a space fumigant in flour and feed mills and ship holds, as a product fumigant for some fruit and cereals, and for general quarantine purposes. Methyl bromide acts rapidly, controlling insects in less than 48 h in space fumigations, and it has a wide spectrum of activity, controlling not only insects but also nematodes and plant-pathogenic microbes. This chemical will be banned in 2005 in developed countries, except for exceptional quarantine purposes, because it depletes ozone in the atmosphere. Many alternatives have been tested as replacements for methyl bromide, from physical control methods such as heat, cold, and sanitation to fumigant replacements such as phosphine, sulfuryl fluoride, and carbonyl sulfide, among others. Individual situations will require their own type of pest control techniques, but the most promising include integrated pest management tactics and combinations of treatments such as phosphine, carbon dioxide, and heat.

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          Journal
          11729078
          10.1146/annurev.ento.47.091201.145217

          Animals,Fumigation,Hydrocarbons, Brominated,Insect Control,methods,Insecticides,Insects

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