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      Optimized Production of Biodiesel from Waste Cooking Oil by Lipase Immobilized on Magnetic Nanoparticles

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          Abstract

          Biodiesel, a non-toxic and biodegradable fuel, has recently become a major source of renewable alternative fuels. Utilization of lipase as a biocatalyst to produce biodiesel has advantages over common alkaline catalysts such as mild reaction conditions, easy product separation, and use of waste cooking oil as raw material. In this study, Pseudomonas cepacia lipase immobilized onto magnetic nanoparticles (MNP) was used for biodiesel production from waste cooking oil. The optimal dosage of lipase-bound MNP was 40% ( w/ w of oil) and there was little difference between stepwise addition of methanol at 12 h- and 24 h-intervals. Reaction temperature, substrate molar ratio (methanol/oil), and water content ( w/ w of oil) were optimized using response surface methodology (RSM). The optimal reaction conditions were 44.2 °C, substrate molar ratio of 5.2, and water content of 12.5%. The predicted and experimental molar conversions of fatty acid methyl esters (FAME) were 80% and 79%, respectively.

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          Most cited references48

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          Protection of SH-SY5Y Neuronal Cells from Glutamate-Induced Apoptosis by 3,6′-Disinapoyl Sucrose, a Bioactive Compound Isolated from Radix Polygala

          The neuroprotective effects of 3,6′-disinapoyl sucrose (DISS) from Radix Polygala against glutamate-induced SH-SY5Y neuronal cells injury were evaluated in the present study. SH-SY5Y neuronal cells were pretreated with glutamate (8 mM) for 30 min followed by cotreatment with DISS for 12 h. Cell viability was determined by (3,4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium bromide (MTT) assay, and apoptosis was confirmed by cell morphology and flow cytometry assay, evaluated with propidium iodide dye. Treatment with DISS (0.6, 6, and 60 μmol/L) increased cell viability dose dependently, inhibited LDH release, and attenuated apoptosis. The mechanisms by which DISS protected neuron cells from glutamate-induced excitotoxicity included the downregulation of proapoptotic gene Bax and the upregulation of antiapoptotic gene Bcl-2. The present findings indicated that DISS exerts neuroprotective effects against glutamate toxicity, which might be of importance and contribute to its clinical efficacy for the treatment of neurodegenerative diseases.
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            BIODIESEL PRODUCTION FROM OILS AND FATS WITH HIGH FREE FATTY ACIDS

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              Immobilized Pseudomonas cepacia lipase for biodiesel fuel production from soybean oil.

              Enzymatic transesterification of soybean oil with methanol and ethanol was studied. Of the nine lipases that were tested in the initial screening, lipase PS from Pseudomonas cepacia resulted in the highest yield of alkyl esters. Lipase from Pseudomonas cepacia was further investigated in immobilized form within a chemically inert, hydrophobic sol-gel support. The gel-entrapped lipase was prepared by polycondensation of hydrolyzed tetramethoxysilane and iso-butyltrimethoxysilane. Using the immobilized lipase PS, the effects of water and alcohol concentration, enzyme loading, enzyme thermal stability, and temperature in the transesterification reaction were investigated. The optimal conditions for processing 10 g of soybean oil were: 35 degrees C, 1:7.5 oil/methanol molar ratio, 0.5 g water and 475 mg lipase for the reactions with methanol, and 35 degrees C, 1:15.2 oil/ethanol molar ratio, 0.3 g water, 475 mg lipase for the reactions with ethanol. Subject to the optimal conditions, methyl and ethyl esters formation of 67 and 65 mol% in 1h of reaction were obtained for the immobilized enzyme reactions. Upon the reaction with the immobilized lipase, the triglycerides reached negligible levels after the first 30 min of the reaction and the immobilized lipase was consistently more active than the free enzyme. The immobilized lipase also proved to be stable and lost little activity when was subjected to repeated uses.
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                Author and article information

                Journal
                Int J Mol Sci
                Int J Mol Sci
                ijms
                International Journal of Molecular Sciences
                Molecular Diversity Preservation International (MDPI)
                1422-0067
                December 2013
                11 December 2013
                : 14
                : 12
                : 24074-24086
                Affiliations
                Department of Bioengineering, Tatung University, 40 Zhongshan N. Rd. Sec. 3, Taipei 10452, Taiwan; E-Mails: chrisyu@ 123456ttu.edu.tw (C.-Y.Y.); cherryfish1115@ 123456gmail.com (L.-Y.H.); iching@ 123456ttu.edu.tw (I.-C.K.)
                Author notes
                [* ]Author to whom correspondence should be addressed; E-Mail: slee@ 123456ttu.edu.tw ; Tel.: +886-2-2182-2928 (ext. 6320); Fax: +886-2-2585-4735.
                Article
                ijms-14-24074
                10.3390/ijms141224074
                3876096
                24336109
                a80a6e14-a75e-44b5-8a8a-30b6f6c003cb
                © 2013 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland

                This article is an open access article distributed under the terms and conditions of the Creative Commons Attribution license ( http://creativecommons.org/licenses/by/3.0/).

                History
                : 09 October 2013
                : 02 December 2013
                : 03 December 2013
                Categories
                Article

                Molecular biology
                biodiesel,lipase,response surface methodology,magnetic nanoparticles,waste cooking oil

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