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      Panoramic radiography can be an effective diagnostic tool adjunctive to oral examinations in the national health checkup program

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          We investigated correlations between the findings of oral examinations and panoramic radiography in order to determine the efficacy of using panoramic radiographs in screening examinations.


          This study included patients who visited dental clinics at National Health Insurance Service (NHIS) Ilsan Hospital for checkups during 2009–2015 and underwent panoramic radiographic examinations within 1 year prior to the oral examinations. Among the 48,006 patients who received checkups, 1,091 were included in this study. The data were evaluated using the Cohen kappa and interrater agreement coefficients. Accuracy, sensitivity, and specificity were calculated using data from the panoramic radiographs as true positive diagnoses.


          The interrater agreement coefficient for occlusal caries was 28.8%, and the Cohen kappa coefficient was 0.043 between the oral and panoramic radiographic examinations. Root caries and subgingival calculus were only found on the radiographs, while gingival inflammation was found only by the oral examinations. The oral examinations had a specificity for detecting occlusal dental caries of 100%, while their sensitivity for proximal dental caries and supragingival calculus was extremely low (14.0% and 18.3%, respectively) compared to the panoramic radiographic examinations. The oral examinations showed a relatively low sensitivity of 66.2% and a specificity of 43.7% in detecting tooth loss compared with panoramic radiography.


          Panoramic radiography can provide information that is difficult to obtain in oral examinations, such as root caries, furcation involvement, and subgingival calculus, which are factors that can directly affect the survival rate of teeth. It therefore seems reasonable and necessary to add panoramic radiography to large-scale health checkup programs such as that provided by the NHIS.

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          Most cited references 24

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          Development of a classification system for periodontal diseases and conditions.

          Classification systems are necessary in order to provide a framework in which to scientifically study the etiology, pathogenesis, and treatment of diseases in an orderly fashion. In addition, such systems give clinicians a way to organize the health care needs of their patients. The last time scientists and clinicians in the field of periodontology and related areas agreed upon a classification system for periodontal diseases was in 1989 at the World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics. Subsequently, a simpler classification was agreed upon at the 1st European Workshop in Periodontology. These classification systems have been widely used by clinicians and research scientists throughout the world. Unfortunately, the 1989 classification had many shortcomings including: 1) considerable overlap in disease categories, 2) absence of a gingival disease component, 3) inappropriate emphasis on age of onset of disease and rates of progression, and 4) inadequate or unclear classification criteria. The 1993 European classification lacked the detail necessary for adequate characterization of the broad spectrum of periodontal diseases encountered in clinical practice. The need for a revised classification system for periodontal diseases was emphasized during the 1996 World Workshop in Periodontics. In 1997 the American Academy of Periodontology responded to this need and formed a committee to plan and organize an international workshop to revise the classification system for periodontal diseases. The proceedings in this volume are the result of this reclassification effort. The process involved development by the Organizing Committee of an outline for a new classification and identification of individuals to write state-of-the-science reviews for each of the items on the outline. The reviewers were encouraged to depart from the preliminary outline if there were data to support any modifications. On October 30-November 2, 1999, the International Workshop for a Classification of Periodontal Diseases and Conditions was held and a new classification was agreed upon (Fig. 1). This paper summarizes how the new classification for periodontal diseases and conditions presented in this volume differs from the classification system developed at the 1989 World Workshop in Clinical Periodontics. In addition, an analysis of the rationale is provided for each of the modifications and changes.
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            Dental calculus: recent insights into occurrence, formation, prevention, removal and oral health effects of supragingival and subgingival deposits.

             Brian White (1997)
            Dental calculus, both supra- and subgingival occurs in the majority of adults worldwide. Dental calculus is calcified dental plaque, composed primarily of calcium phosphate mineral salts deposited between and within remnants of formerly viable microorganisms. A viable dental plaque covers mineralized calculus deposits. Levels of calculus and location of formation are population specific and are affected by oral hygiene habits, access to professional care, diet, age, ethnic origin, time since last dental cleaning, systemic disease and the use of prescription medications. In populations that practice regular oral hygiene and with access to regular professional care, supragingival dental calculus formation is restricted to tooth surfaces adjacent to the salivary ducts. Levels of supragingival calculus in these populations is minor and the calculus has little if any impact on oral-health. Subgingival calculus formation in these populations occurs coincident with periodontal disease (although the calculus itself appears to have little impact on attachment loss), the latter being correlated with dental plaque. In populations that do not practice regular hygiene and that do not have access to professional care, supragingival calculus occurs throughout the dentition and the extent of calculus formation can be extreme. In these populations, supragingival calculus is associated with the promotion of gingival recession. Subgingival calculus, in "low hygiene" populations, is extensive and is directly correlated with enhanced periodontal attachment loss. Despite extensive research, a complete understanding of the etiologic significance of subgingival calculus to periodontal disease remains elusive, due to inability to clearly differentiate effects of calculus versus "plaque on calculus". As a result, we are not entirely sure whether subgingival calculus is the cause or result of periodontal inflammation. Research suggests that subgingival calculus, at a minimum, may expand the radius of plaque induced periodontal injury. Removal of subgingival plaque and calculus remains the cornerstone of periodontal therapy. Calculus formation is the result of petrification of dental plaque biofilm, with mineral ions provided by bathing saliva or crevicular fluids. Supragingival calculus formation can be controlled by chemical mineralization inhibitors, applied in toothpastes or mouthrinses. These agents act to delay plaque calcification, keeping deposits in an amorphous non-hardened state to facilitate removal with regular hygiene. Clinical efficacy for these agents is typically assessed as the reduction in tartar area coverage on the teeth between dental cleaning. Research shows that topically applied mineralization inhibitors can also influence adhesion and hardness of calculus deposits on the tooth surface, facilitating removal. Future research in calculus may include the development of improved supragingival tartar control formulations, the development of treatments for the prevention of subgingival calculus formation, the development of improved methods for root detoxification and debridement and the development and application of sensitive diagnostic methods to assess subgingival debridement efficacy.
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              Dental anomalies of number, form and size: their prevalence in British schoolchildren.


                Author and article information

                J Periodontal Implant Sci
                J Periodontal Implant Sci
                Journal of Periodontal & Implant Science
                Korean Academy of Periodontology
                October 2018
                26 October 2018
                : 48
                : 5
                : 317-325
                [1 ]Department of Dentistry and Periodontology, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
                [2 ]Department of Periodontology, Daejeon Dental Hospital, Institute of Wonkwang Dental Research, Wonkwang University College of Dentistry, Daejeon, Korea.
                [3 ]Department of Health Insurance Research, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, Goyang, Korea.
                Author notes
                Correspondence: Young-Taek Kim. Department of Dentistry and Periodontology, National Health Insurance Service Ilsan Hospital, 100 Ilsan-ro, Ilsandong-gu, Goyang 10444, Korea. youngtaek@ , Tel: +82-31-900-0625, Fax: +82-0303-3448-7138
                Copyright © 2018. Korean Academy of Periodontology

                This is an Open Access article distributed under the terms of the Creative Commons Attribution Non-Commercial License (

                Funded by: National Health Insurance Service, CrossRef;
                Research Article


                dental radiography, diagnosis, national health program, panoramic radiography


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